value

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Value

The estimated or appraised worth of any object or property, calculated in money.

The word value has many meanings and may be used in different senses. Because value is usually a relative term, its true meaning must be determined by the context in which it appears.

Value sometimes expresses the inherent usefulness of an object and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods with it. The first is called value in use, the latter value in exchange. Value in use is the utility of an object in satisfying, directly or indirectly, the needs or desires of human beings. Value in exchange is the amount of commodities, commonly represented by money, for which a thing can be exchanged in an open market. This concept is usually referred to as market value.

Courts have frequently used the word value without any clear indication of whether it referred to value in use or market value. Generally, however, the courts and parties in civil actions are concerned with market value. Though courts may refer to salable value, actual value, fair value, reasonable value, and cash value, these terms are synonymous with market value.

Value is also employed in various phrases in business and commercial usage. The phrase actual cash value is used in insurance to signify the cost of purchasing new replacement property less normal depreciation, though it may also be determined by the current market value of similar property or by the cost of replacing or repairing the property. Cash surrender value is used in life insurance to refer to the amount that the insurer will pay the policyholder if the policy is canceled before the death of the insured.

Book value is the value at which the assets of a business are carried on the company's books. The book value of a fixed asset is arrived at by subtracting accumulated depreciation from the cost of the asset. Book value may also refer to the net worth of a business, which is calculated by subtracting liabilities from assets. Liquidation value is the value of a business or an asset when it is sold other than in the ordinary course of business, as in the liquidation of a business.

In the Stock Market, par value is the nominal value of stock; it is calculated by dividing the total stated capital stock by the number of shares authorized. Stated value is the value of no par stock established by the corporation as constituting the capital of the corporation.

Cross-references

Fair Market Value.

value

noun advantage, aestimatio, amount, appraisal, assessment, benefit, caliber, consequence, cost, desirability, effect, equivalent, esteem, estimate, estimation, excellence, expense, force, impact, importance, merit, price, purport, quality, quotation, significance, substance, superiority, use, usefulness, utility, valuation, worth, worthiness
Associated concepts: acquisition value, actual cash value, accual market value, appraised value, assessed value, book value, cash market value, cash surrender value, current market value, face value, fair and reasonable value, fair market value, fair value, full cash value, good faith purchaser for value, gross value, highest market value, holder for value, instrument of value, insurable value, intrinsic value, market value, negotiable instrument, nominal value, nuisance value, par value, pecuniary value, present value, probative value, prospective value, purchaser for value, real value, reasonable value, relative value, rental value, reserve value, residual value, retention value, substantial value, sufficient value, surrender value, tangible value, taxable value, transser for value, true value, value received
Foreign phrases: Libertas non recipit aestimationem.Freedom does not admit a valuation. Tantum bona valent, quantum vendipossunt. Goods are worth as much as they are sold for. Res per pecuniam aestimatur, et non pecunia per rem. The value of a thing is estimated according to its worth in money, but the value of money is not estimated by reference to propprty. Sapientia legis nummario pretio non est aestimanda. The wisdom of the law cannot be computed in money value.
See also: amount, appraise, assess, calculate, caliber, charge, consequence, cost, criticize, degree, emphasis, estimate, evaluate, expense, face amount, gauge, honor, importance, judge, magnitude, materiality, measure, merit, par, prefer, price, quality, rate, recommend, regard, significance, signification, sum, utility, weight, worth

VALUE, common law. This term has two different meanings. It sometimes expresses the utility of an object, and some times the power of purchasing other good with it. The first may be called value in use, the latter value in exchange.
     2. Value differs from price. The latter is applied to live cattle and animals; in a declaration, therefore, for taking cattle, they ought to be said to be of such a price; and in a declaration for taking dead chattels or those which never had life, it ought to lay them to be of such a value. 2 Lilly's Ab. 620.

References in periodicals archive ?
To date, it has been shown that the cash asset ratio affects prices only for the case when fundamental values are decreasing.
We can conclude that the distribution of the fundamental value of a high school diploma is above the distributions of fundamental values of a college degree at lower percentiles.
The widespread use of comps by buyers, sellers, real estate agents, and appraisers is the very mechanism by which market prices can wander far from fundamental values.
One of the most striking results from experimental asset markets is the tendency of asset prices to bubble above fundamental value and subsequently crash.
Treacy and Wiersema provide similar examples of companies which have chosen the other fundamental values, namely, product leadership and customer intimacy.
In chapters three and four, the author offers a list of seven fundamental values - knowledge, beauty, life, friendship, playfulness, practical reasonableness, and religion or wonderment - and places them in context in a world full of many value systems and traditions.
The Court went on to say: The protection of our society, and the upholding of its most fundamental values, necessitate that in cases such as this the sentencing considerations of general deterrence and denunciation must be given primacy above the ameliorating effect of youth
Because the details of this proposal are unclear, we analyze the effects on fundamental values of two policies: complete elimination of the interest deduction, and its replacement with a 15 percent tax credit without a cap.
95) is both the most comprehensive and yet the most compact documented summary of why vouchers and similar schemes are not in the best interest of our country, our children, good education, and such fundamental values as religious liberty and church state separation.
This conflict is really all about the fundamental values of consumer choice and competition benefiting customers throughout the world who use mainframe computers to run and manage mission-critical applications.
In this respect the EU underlines the importance of the rule of law, including the separation of executive and judicial powers, democratic pluralism and freedom of expression, as fundamental values upon which representative government is built.
The Pope insists that Europe's integration must be based on the fundamental values of the dignity of the human being, not on geographical or economic interests.

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