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Cortay et al., "G1 phase regulation, area-specific cell cycle control, and cytoarchitectonics in the primate cortex," Neuron, vol.
After the damaged HK-2 cells were repaired by 60 [micro]g/mL polysaccharide, LDH release amount reduced, mitochondrial membrane potential improved, cell proportion of G1 phase reduced but cell proportion of S1 phase increased, lysosome integrity improved, and cell apoptotic rate reduced.
Cyclin D mainly regulates the G1 phase of cells, and its major synthesis is activated by AP1 (activation of growth factor GF).
Our results demonstrated that VPA treatment suppresses the growth of cancer cells by inducing G1 phase arrest and apoptosis; therefore, VPA should be evaluated as an alternative or adjuvant therapy for OSCC in the clinic.
5-FU converts into fluorouracil deoxynucleotide in the body and specifically binds with thymidylate synthase, thus affecting cell DNA synthesis; so the results showed an increase in G1 phase cells, resulting in accumulation of G1 phase cells and failure to enter S phase; S phase cells decreased, so that the G2/M phase cells were relatively increased, while the increase in G2/M phase cells is a common reaction of cell damage [15].
Sample ID A B C Proportions of cells in G1 phase (%) 67.56 63.32 55.88 Proportions of cells in S phase (%) 24.99 2753 33.77 Proportions of cells in G2/M phase (%) 7.45 9.15 10.34 Sample ID D E F Proportions of cells in G1 phase (%) 45.68 51.72 41.15 Proportions of cells in S phase (%) 39.59 27.38 35.19 Proportions of cells in G2/M phase (%) 14.73 20.90 23.66
Second, hES cells possess a unique cell cycle profile with an abbreviated G1 phase and long S phase [18].
Researches have shown that the expression of PCNA, an early cell-cycle protein, which is upregulated in the late G1 phase, could be markedly affected by low intensity laser irradiation [26].
Therefore, Pd-NP might produce an effect similar to nutrient depletion in inducing autophagy in the G1 phase [42].
The cycle of eukaryotic cells consists of four phases: G1 phase (gap 1, between mitosis and initiation of DNA replication), S phase while DNA replication begins, and G2 phase (gap 2) during which cell growth is in progress and proteins are synthesized for the next mitosis (M phase) [61].
After incubation for 16 h with 5 mg/mL aphidicolin, RPMI-8226 cells passed the G1 checkpoint at the end of the G1 phase and approached the beginning of the S phase.