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Gd-DTPA and Gd-RGD concentrations were 1/10 and 1/1000 of the clinical concentration, respectively, while all contrast agent dosages were 0.
In 3501 out of 10608 examinations Gd-DOTA was used (in 2806 patients with rectal cancer, in 170 bladder studies, in 95 kidney tumours, in 220 patients with ovarian cancer, in 80 patients with uterus tumour, and in 130 patients with indeterminate mesenteric lesion), in 3002 Gd-BT-DO3A (in 1405 brain studies, in 593 patients with pancreatic lesion, in 650 liver studies, in 220 breast cancers, and in 134 uterus tumours), in 1812 Gd-BOPTA (in 1582 breast tumours and in 230 liver studies), in 1487 Gd-EOB-DTPA for liver and biliary tree studies, and in 806 Gd-DTPA (in 276 patients with sarcomas, in 180 patients with mesenteric lesions, in 270 patients with colorectal cancer, and in 80 patients with neck cancer).
Although there are not enough data to assess the safety of Gd-DTPA in pregnant women, it has been shown to cross the placenta and should not be administered.
Annual worldwide sales of low molecular weight MRI reagents, such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, are estimated to be $800 million and growing due to the proliferation of MRI instruments.
A radiographic follow-up was administrated in July 2014 demonstrating an ovoid sellar lesion measuring 9 mm x 11 mm x 14 mm indicative of enlargement of the former cyst, with hyperintense, with no obvious enhancement after administration of Gd-DTPA on T1-weighted images and iso- to hyper-intense on T2-weighted images [Figure 1]b, and apparently, the signal characteristics of the MRI were almost the same as the initial one suggesting likely hemorrhage.
Tofts, "Modeling tracer kinetics in dynamic Gd-DTPA MR imaging," Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.
Ionic Nonionic Macrocyclic Gd-DOTA (Dotarem) Gd-HP-DO3A (ProHance) Gd-BT-DO3A(Gadovist) Linear Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) Gd-DTPA-BMA(Omniscan) Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance) Gd-DTPA-BMEA(OptiMARK) Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist/Eovist) Gadofosveset (Vasovist) Table 2: Case examples of GBCA imaging alternatives.