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In a two-step process, researchers first silenced parts of the p53-p21 protein pathway that acts as a roadblock to the reprogramming of glial cells into the more primitive, stem-like types of cells with potential to become nerve cells.
Most of the transplanted stem cells became glia--oligodendrocytes as well as glial cells that provide environmental regulation for neurons (astrocytes).
Wnt Regulates Proliferation and Neurogenic Potential of Muller Glial Cells via a Lin28/let-7 miRNA-Dependent Pathway in Adult Mammalian Retinas," Cell Reports, 2016; 17(1): 165 DOI: 10.
At the moment, the results are preliminary and provide proof-of-principle that an inkjet printer can be used to print two types of cells from the retina of adult rats- ganglion cells and glial cells, scientists said, Science Daily reported.
Further experiments revealed that brain cells known as glial cells swell and shrink to control fluid flow.
Nedergaard's team has dubbed the new system "the glymphatic system," since it acts much like the lymphatic system but is managed by brain cells known as glial cells.
To date, it was believed that these neural crest stem cells could generate the neurons and support cells, known as glial cells, of the peripheral nervous system, but not the cells of the central nervous system.
Individual chapters address areas such as the neuroimmunomodulatory role of nerve growth factor in airway inflammation, antiglycolipid antibodies in autoimmune neuropathies, age-dependent differential activation profiles of glial cells by the leptomeninges during systemic inflammation, and the dual role of nitric oxide in astrocyte survival and death.
We used to think that all glial cells functioned as support cells and that neurons were the business end of the brain, " said Dost Ongur, MD, PhD, an instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School.
Glial cells that appear later than neurons during early development were shown to be more vulnerable than neurons to CPF (Qiao et al.