Table 1: World Health Organization classification of thymoma Type Histologic description A Medullary thymoma AB Mixed thymoma B1 Predominantly cortical thymoma B2 Cortical thymoma B3 Well-differentiated thymic carcinoma C Thymic carcinoma Table 2: Masaoka staging system of thymoma Stage 1 Encapsulated tumor with no gross or microscopic invasion Stage 2 Macroscopic invasion into mediastinal fat or pleura Stage 3 Invasion of pericardium, great vessels
, or lung Stage 4 Pleural or pericardial metastatic spread Stage 5 Lymphatic or hematogenous spread
5) Echocardiography can have limitations such as poor windows due to obesity or scarring and lack of definition of thoracic great vessels
About 12% of those are accompanied by congenital heart abnormalities including atrial and ventricular septal defect, aortic coarctation, transposition of the great vessels
and Tetralogy of Fallot.
There are various causes of a retroperitoneal haemorrhage; these include bleeding from renal vessels, kidney, great vessels
either spontaneously or after trauma.
However, the close anatomic relationship between lumbar spine and great vessels
including aorta, inferior vena cava, or iliac vessels result in more complications of vascular injury reported with the widely used procedures.
Histologic sections of great vessels
from all birds (study and control birds) were reviewed and then submitted for immunohistochemical staining for the presence of C psittaci antigen.
Incomplete or partial situs inversus is invariably associated with cardiac abnormalities like septal defects, pulmonary arterial stenosis, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels
, and alimentary tract problems like atresia and stenosis of duodenum (4).
Contrast-enhanced MRI angiography (CE-MRA) can be performed to give an indication of the morphology of the great vessels
Background: Congenital heart disease is a defect in the structure of heart and great vessels
present at birth.
TRANSPOSITION of the great vessels
means the aorta and the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood away from the heart, are switched.
Since the discovery of X-rays by Rontgen in 1895, the turf war between clinicians and radiologists regarding their ownership has always been fiercest around the imaging of the heart and great vessels
The other injuries identified were lung parenchyma bleeding (12) intercostal vessels (10), great vessels
of the chest (6), internal mammary vessel (2), and pericardial injury with no myocardial injury (2).