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Cytoskeleton reorganization is a major step in the transformation of the inert retraction bulb that forms after axotomy into the highly dynamic growth cone.
However, most growth cones of adult neurons lack sufficient amounts of MMPs to digest all the regeneration-inhibiting factors in the CNS, and thus their ability to regeneration remains blocked.
It is this retrograde flow of F-actin, within the growth cone, that appears to supply the traction needed for the advancement of the growth cone body.
When EphA4 binds to an ephrin ligand it initiates a cascade of intracellular signalling events that will ultimately cause the growth cone to steer away from the area.
It also marks the first time aggregate growth cones were used in FOMC policy deliberations.
This pace is a little faster than last year's and again left M3 above the upper end of its growth cone, which, like the growth cone for M2, was set to be consistent with price stability.
The NGF-inducible SCG10 mRNA encodes a novel membrane-bound protein present in growth cones and abundant in developing neurons.
Much of this research has focused on a damaged neuron's propensity to develop a growth cone or retraction bulb after injury.
Among specific topics are molecular and cellular mechanisms of lamina-specific axon targeting, human genetic disorders of axon guidance, the growth cone cytoskeleton in axon outgrowth and guidance, trafficking guidance receptors, guidance molecules in synapse formation and plasticity, and guidance molecules in axon pruning and cell death.
Paul Forscher (Yale University) presented high-resolution dynamic imaging of cytoskeletal dynamics in the growth cone of Aplysia neurons.