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The monument marks the gravesites of the Haymarket martyrs as an alternative sacred space and reconstitutes the laborers, rather than the police, as victims.
Falk notes in the introduction that the German anarchist Johann Most had sent Goldman on the tour, and that she echoed many of the sentiments expressed by Most and many of the Haymarket Martyrs in their 1883 Pittsburgh Proclamation.
In Paris in 1889 the International Working Men's Association (the socialist First International) declared May 1 an international workers holiday in commemoration of the Haymarket Martyrs -paid for by the blood and sacrifice of activists within the workers movement.
Emma was profoundly moved by the execution of the five men known as the Haymarket Martyrs after one such meeting.
It was a conspiracy conviction, not murder, that placed nooses around the necks of Chicago's Haymarket martyrs and led to the deportation of immigrant radicals during and after World War I.
In some circles, bonfires are lit in commemoration of the Haymarket martyrs, usually at dawn.
Like the Rosenbergs or the Haymarket martyrs, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti have become larger-than-life figures.