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HERMAPHRODITES. Persons who have in the sexual organs the appearance of both sexes. They are adjudged to belong to that which prevails in them. Co. Litt. 2, 7; Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 1, t. 2, s. 1, n.. 9.
     2. The sexual characteristics in the human species are widely separated, and the two sexes are never, perhaps, united in the same individual. 2 Dunglison's Hum. Physiol. 304; 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 94 to 110.
     3. Dr. William Harris, in a lecture delivered to the Philadelphia Medical Institute, gives an interesting account of a supposed hermaphrodite who came under his own observation in Chester county, Pennsylvania. The individual was called Elizabeth, and till the age of eighteen, wore the female dress, when she threw it off, and assumed the name of Rees, with the dress and habits of a man; at twenty-five, she married a woman, but had no children. Her clitoris was five or six inches long, and in coition, which she greatly enjoyed, she used this instead of the male organ. She lived till she was sixty years of age, and died in possession of a large estate, which she had acquired by her industry and enterprise. Medical Examiner, vol. ii. p, 314. Vide 1 Briand, M‚d. L‚g. c. 2, art. 2, Sec. 2, n. 2; Dict. des Sciences M‚d. art. Hypospadias, et art. Impuissance; Guy, Med. Jur. 42, 47.

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Les hermaphrodites dans l'ancien droit francais, in Les annales de droit, no 3, 2009, 51-61, en particulier 58-59.
During the second half of the twentieth century, as medical techniques were refined and medical specialization became more defined, diagnostic terms proliferated and were mapped onto the earlier hermaphrodite taxonomy.
Long begins with Greek and Roman depictions and moves to an analysis of sex theories found in the medical treatises of Pare, Bauhin, and Duval, who mostly use the figure of the hermaphrodite to discuss differences between the male and female body in the contexts of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century cultural notions of gender.
The last chapters of the Tableau re-examine a series of troubling questions: how does one explain the existence of eunuchs and hermaphrodites and how do they fit into the grand scheme of God or Nature's plan; what is their socio-legal standing; are they to be viewed as monsters and outcasts as the church maintained; should they ever be allowed to marry or enter holy orders?
The first lines, used in the titles of XVIIIth-century editions--"The Isle of Hermaphrodites recently discovered, with the manners, laws, customs and ordinances of its inhabitants" evoke the genre of utopian imaginary journeys.
The high frequency of hermaphrodites in the translocated sample is unusual for most freshwater mussel populations thus far examined.
If strictly maternal in inheritance, cytoplasmic genes are transmitted through ovule production in both females and hermaphrodites, and the number and quality of seeds produced should be important components of cytoplasmic fitness.
Each of these scenarios would alter the balance between male and female function, thereby providing a selective advantage for a change in allocation to male and female function in hermaphrodites.
Should genetically-engineered hermaphrodites be granted equal rights?
His stories were considered daring for featuring the problems of hermaphrodites, exiled lovers, and homosexuals.