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Four additional uremic retention solutes, creatinine, hypoxanthine, indoxyl sulpate and hippuric acid, were identified from the HPLC profiles contributing to the UV absorbance.
Determination of benzoic acid and hippuric acid in human plasma and urine by HPLC .
Assay of carboxypeptidase N activity in serum by liquid chromatographic detection of hippuric acid.
Toluene biotransformation takes place in the liver by the cytochrome P450 2El (CYP2E1) isoform, producing hippuric acid, which is excreted in urine (Nakajima and Wang 1994).
Low peptide excretion was also observed for the size range of 250-750 Da, and high recovery of amino acids was achieved only for the fraction containing molecules under 250 Da, which would include free amino acids and amino acid derivatives such as hippuric acid and 5-oxoproline.
Often consumed in juice form to treat cystitis, they contain hippuric acid, which prevents the bacteria responsible for causing cystitis clinging to the urinary tract lining.
The reaction mixture obtained was used to quantitate the hippuric acid produced due to ACE activity on the substrate.
Candidate molecules are indoxyl sulfate (6, 33, 34), indole 3-acetic acid (35, 36), 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (37, 38), phenol (39), advanced glycation end products (40-42), leptin (43, 44), homocysteine (45, 46), hippuric acid (47, 48), and p-hydroxyhippuric acid (49, 50).
The factory workers showed an elevated level of urinary hippuric acid, a biomarker of toluene exposure, and workplace air contained high concentrations of various organic solvents such as toluene, gasoline, acetone, and (in one of the plants only) ethylacetate and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate.