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The occurrence of echinoderm and bryozoan holdfasts indicates that a surface of calcareous sandstone within the Pakri Formation was lithified before encrustation.
There was no significant difference between attacks on seahorses that were similar or different to their holdfasts (p = 0.
From the holdfasts rise stalks, and from them grow fronds buoyant with carbon dioxide-filled bubbles called pneumatocysts.
They swept over holdfasts and cities and kingdoms, felled heroes and armies by the score, riding their pale dead horses and leading hosts of the slain.
All erect macroalgae and sessile invertebrates were scraped from the rock, which was then intensively burned using a propane torch to destroy residual algal crusts and holdfasts.
vareigata holdfasts were pulled off the substrate whole, and care was taken not to damage them.
Behavioral adaptations to reduce the effects of thermal and desiccation stress in tidally emersed gastropods include selection of favorable microhabitats (Kensler 1967, Raffaelli & Hughes 1978), spatial distribution (Chapman & Underwood 1996), individual posture (Britton 1995), evaporative cooling (McMahon 1988), production of mucus holdfasts (Bingham, 1972), and restricting movement to periods of reduced stress (Peckol et al.