This may have a deleterious effect on the reactants, products, or catalyst, especially when homogeneous catalysts
are employed as these are quite moisture sensitive.
Though a delay in catalytic activity at the beginning of the oil palm transesterification reaction with CaO is observed (latency time), the reaction time necessary for reaching specific biodiesel yields is increased when compared with homogeneous catalysts
Alternatively, to overcome these operational challenges, the use of homogeneous catalysts
has been investigated for in situ upgrading of heavy oil.
Biodiesel (methyl ester, ME) produced by transesterification process using homogeneous catalysts
requires to be purified by removing impurities and by product (glycerol) via water washing process.
As to the homogeneous catalysts
, manganese and nickel in the ionic form did not influence the degradation rate of BA.
Methods for the recovery and recycling of homogeneous catalysts
were introduced in a keynote presentation by Walter Leitner (RWTH Aachen, Germany).
Johnson Matthey is a leading manufacturer and supplier of Platinum Group Metal (PGM) heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts
Only homogeneous catalysts
have proved so highly selective.
Artificial metalloenzymes combine attractive features of both homogeneous catalysts
and enzymes, including the possibility to genetically optimize the catalytic performance of new-to-nature organometallic reactions.