Cell

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CELL. A small room in a prison. See Dungeon.

References in periodicals archive ?
Milam, "Abnormalities in rod photoreceptors, amacrine and horizontal cells in human retinas with retinitis pigmentosa," American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.
Different studies have shown that, in the retina, Isl1 is expressed in mature and differentiating ganglion, amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells, suggesting that it plays a pivotal role in the maturation of these cell types in fish [9-11], reptiles [12], birds [13-21], and mammals [22-28].
Our work demonstrates that local stimulation of caged calcium trapped within horizontal cells by ultraviolet light delivered by small optic fibers can be used to increase intracellular levels of calcium in isolated horizontal cells.
Data similar to that shown in Figure 1D were obtained from 6 horizontal cells, normalized to the current measured at [V.sub.c] -120 mV in control Ringer solution, and averaged (Fig.
Our immunohistochemical results confirmed the early degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors, the reactivity of Muller cells, and neuronal remodeling processes in certain types of bipolar and horizontal cells [16].
Focusing their efforts on the melanopsin light sensor, which is responsible for sensing day and night but barely involved - in mammals, at least - in seeing images, Yau's team looked for melanopsin-containing cells in other vertebrates, and found some in the retinal horizontal cells in goldfish and catfish.
All-trans retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, acting through a plasma membrane retinoic acid-binding protein, has been shown to reduce electrical coupling between horizontal cells both in situ and between cell pairs in culture (10).
Horizontal cells could thus exert their inhibitory influences by modifying the concentration of hydrogen ions in the external milieu.
Immunoreactive antibodies directed against GABA and its rate-limiting enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) indicate that horizontal cells of the skate are most likely GABAergic (1).
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether such self-referencing, ion-selective electrodes could be used to detect steady ion fluxes from retinal horizontal cells of the skate.
Consistent with previous work conducted on a variety of cell types, including cardiac myocytes and neurons, we found that quinine and quinidine block a number of voltage-gated conductances in the horizontal cells, including those selective for potassium, sodium, and calcium ions.

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