"The House of Refuge
has always been a joyful burden," Benjie says, "It is your help that has given these children the chances they need in life.
However, after several decades of the House of Refuge
movement, it became apparent that it fell victim to the same "increasingly repressive emphasis" that characterized the earlier treatment of youth within the adult penal system.
The New York House of Refuge
, the first juvenile reformatory in the United States, opened in New York City in 1824.
Louis House of Refuge
and Father Dunne's News Boys' Home and Protectorate.
Public and private efforts at curbing delinquency such as the well-known Five Points House of Refuge
and the largely unstudied Mercury packet ship for "wild, reckless and semi-criminal lads" all come into view.
In the course of his work he often visited the house of refuge
she opened in Kensington.
Called the New York House of Refuge
, its creators called it a "school." The State Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, in its famous decision in "Ex Parte Crouse," stated that the aims of the house of refuge
were to reform the youngsters within them "by training .
However a second generation, in one case quite literally, has tried to push out from the elite center toward women on the peripheries of Venetian life and to place them in their institutional setting, whether the informal institutions of neighbor and class or the formal institutions of convent and house of refuge
. Monica Chojnacka does the former in Working Women in Early Modern Venice (Baltimore, 2001), Jutta Sperling the latter in Convents and the Body Politic in Late Renaissance Venice (Chicago, 1999).
Other organizations Mann has been involved with include the Victim Offender Reconciliation Program; the Wellness Community, a support group for cancer patients; and the House of Refuge
, a men's homeless shelter.
It progressed to a potter's field, a military arsenal and parade ground, a reformatory, and after the House of Refuge
for the Society for the Protection of Juvenile Delinquents burned down in 1839, the city gradually turned it into a park, which was opened to the public in 1847 and was named for President James Madison, who lived in New York for a short time on Cherry Street.
Refusing to deal with his son, Cole's father places him in a boy's reformatory called the House of Refuge
, where one loses one's name.