Grotius, Hugo

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Grotius, Hugo

Hugo Grotius.

Hugo Grotius, also known as Huigh de Groot, achieved prominence as a Dutch jurist and statesman and is regarded as the originator of International Law.

Grotius was born April 10, 1583, in Delft, Netherlands. A brilliant student, Grotius attended the University of Leiden, received a law degree at the age of fifteen, and was admitted to the bar and began his legal practice at Delft in 1599. It was at this time that he became interested in international law, and, in 1609, wrote a preliminary piece titled Mare liberum, which advocated freedom of the seas to all countries.

In 1615, Grotius became involved in a religious controversy between two opposing groups, the Remonstrants, Dutch Protestants who abandoned Calvinism to follow the precepts of their leader, Jacobus Arminius, and the Anti-Remonstrants, who adhered to the beliefs of Calvinism. The dispute extended to politics, and when Maurice of Nassau gained control of the government, the Remonstrants lost popular support. Grotius, a supporter of the Remonstrants, was imprisoned in 1619. Two years later he escaped, seeking safety in Paris.

In Paris, Grotius began his legal writing, and, in 1625, produced De jure belli ac pacis, translated as "Concerning the Law of War and Peace." This work is regarded as the first official text of the principles of international law, wherein Grotius maintained that Natural Law is the basis for legislation for countries as well as individuals. He opposed war in all but extreme cases and advocated respect for life and the ownership of property. The main sources for his theories were the Bible and history.

"What the consent of all men makes known as their will is law."
—Hugo Grotius

Grotius spent the remainder of his years in diplomatic and theological endeavors. From 1635 to 1645, he represented Queen Christina of Sweden as her ambassador to France. He pursued his religious interests and wrote several theological works. Grotius died August 28, 1645, in Rostock, Germany.

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In a letter to Hugo Grotius penned in August 1610, the admiral explained that the area around the Johor River estuary was not a suitable location after all:
HUGO GROTIUS, MARE LIBERUM 22 (James Brown Scott ed.
Die Naturrechtslehre des Hugo Grotius als Einigungsprinzip der Christenheit, dargestellt an seiner Stellung zum Calvinismus.
Making the World Safe for Holland: 'De Indis' of Hugo Grotius and International Law as Geoculture.
Annet den Haan explores why Giannozzo Manetti believed that a translation into the vernacular can never be a good translation, while Beate Hintzen looks at a series of poems connected to Martin Opitz to bring out the role of Greek within the contact between Latin and vernacular literature, and Guillaume van Gemert follows a treatise of Hugo Grotius from its beginnings as a work of self-apology in a Dutch context through a Latin translation in which the theological content stood front and center to a series of German translations, one of which made its way into the hands of a Swedish general.
32) In arguing against a customary law favouring intervention, Chesterman draws back to the origins of humanitarian intervention emerging from two opposing views: on the one hand, the one of Hugo Grotius (33) based on the belief that war was justified or just when opposed to an immoral enemy, and on the other hand, the coalescence of the principle of non-intervention as inherent part of sovereignty.
4 on 'The Natural Jurisprudence Tradition That Smith Drew on and Extended', which looks essentially at Smith's indebtedness to Samuel Pufendorf and John Locke and, to a lesser extent, to Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius.
In Lauterpacht, Hugo Grotius, the League of Nations, and the Nuremberg trials she finds "glimmerings of the humanity law framework" (p.
Hugo Grotius and the Moral Foundations of International Relations, Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.
Hugo Grotius, whose seminal works of the early seventeenth century also champion private property, sought to develop a largely secular conception of natural law.
At Jena, he was exposed to the writings of earlier natural-law theorists such as Hugo Grotius and under the influence of such luminaries, Pufendorf set forth his own theories of man's rights and responsibilities under the law of nature and nature's God.