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New techniques have been tending to be non-invasive, easy to perform, safe, low-priced and capable of giving information on the early stages of hypoperfusion. As the renal medulla is one the first affected tissues from hypoperfusion and urine can be sampled by a semi-invasive route, the kidneys are one of the promising organs that can be studied for this purpose.
Bilateral anterior watershed infarction, systemic hypoperfusion or hypovolaemic shock,2 pontine and extrapontine myelinozis,4 closed head trauma,5 central nervous system metastases,6 bilateral intratumoural haemorrhage,7 cervical cord contusion,8 cervical region metastases,9 spinal cord infarcts,10 cervical myelopathy,11 hereditary and sporadic ALS, Sjogren and HIV-associated motor neuron disease,12 bilateral brachial plexopathy13,14 and cyclosporin-dependent neurotoxicity15 are some of the etiologic factors presented in the literature for MIBS.
Acute watershed infarcts with global cerebral hypoperfusion in symptomatic CADASIL.
This implied that hypoperfusion in certain regions might take place prior to GM atrophy in the progression of ALS.
Two of the more strongly supported conclusions are that PI values of less than 1.24 are seen as an accurate predictor of severity of illness for infants admitted to the NICU, (17) and values less than 1.4 are accurate indicators of hypoperfusion in critically ill adults.
In particular, it was found to be associated with hypoperfusion involving the left hemisphere, frontal lobe, and thalamus.
The hypometabolic regions largely colocalized with the hypoperfusion areas, including the STG, Limbic lobe/ParaHippo, superior parietal lobe (SPL), PCC, and ACC.
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) can lead to cognitive impairment and neuronal cell damage, via oxidative stress and inflammation [1].
Epidural was chosen over spinal blockade for several reasons: primarily to minimize the risks of inadvertent high block necessitating general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation; secondarily to reduce the risks of maternal hypotension, utero placental hypoperfusion, and fetal academia by reducing the speed of onset of sympathectomy.
It is hypothesized that the pancreas can be susceptible to hypoperfusion as seen in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery [3].
On admission, physical examination presented signs of hypoperfusion, fever, hypoxemia, and bilateral leg edema.
While one report postulated the AKI to be secondary to dehydration and the other to be secondary to rhabdomyolysis or hypoperfusion, both mentioned the possibility of a direct toxic effect of difluoroethane [3,12].