Intravenous infusion of maintenance hypotonic solutions
in humans is considered to be one cause of hyponatremia in patients who received large volumes of these solutions or who are hydrated over long periods of time (CHOONG et al., 2006).
contain only minimal solute concentrations and greater concentrations of water.
The technique described by Guest and Hsu (1973) was used with slight modifications: tissues were treated in 0.4 colchicine-phosphate-buffered saline solution for 15 min, then in an hypotonic solution
(1% sodium citrate) for 10 min, before fixing in an ethanol : acetic acid mixture (3:1) for 30 min.
First, ciclesonide is the only intranasal corticosteroid administered via a hypotonic solution
. In animal studies, administration of ciclesonide via an intranasal hypotonic suspension resulted in a higher drug concentration in the nasal cavity than administration via an isotonic suspension.
Embryos and gonads were dissected in insect physiological solution (7.5g NaCl, 2.38g [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 2.72g K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4] in 1L of distilled water), transferred to colchicine solution (0.05% for embryos and 0.16% for gonads, both in insect physiological solution) and left for 2 h; a volume of hypotonic solution
(tap water) equal to that of the colchicine solution was added, and after 15 min, the material was placed in Carnoy I (3 methanol: 1 acetic acid) fixative solution for 30 min.
The drop-splash method was used according to the following protocol: a colchicine (0.05%) treatment of a pool of trochophores in sea water for 2 h, mechanical disruption of cells, including centrifugation at 1000 rpm/10 min, hypotonic treatment in distilled seawater (1:1) for 30 min and then in 0.075 mol/L KC1 30 min, washing to eliminate hypotonic solution
(centrifuging at 800 rmp for 10 min), fixation involved three changes (20 min each) in freshly prepared solution of absolute methanol-acetic acid (3:1) and washing (centrifuging at 800 rmp for 10 min).
for 10 min and treated with hypotonic solution
(20 min in 0.075 M potassium chloride (KC1) at 37 [degrees]C).
The supernatant was removed and 5 ml of prewarmed (37[degrees]C) 0.075 Molar KCl (hypotonic solution
) was added.
The long and time consuming process of blood cells culturing is not required as cells can be fixed on the slide after treating with hypotonic solution
. Analysis can be done on non-dividing interphase cells and metaphases are not required.
MIAMI BEACH -- A new intranasal corticosteroid available as a hypotonic solution
significantly reduced nasal symptoms associated with perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents in two phase III trials.
Then, their gills were extracted and placed in a hypotonic solution
of 0.4% KCl.
Gills and gonads were dissected out with scissors, treated with hypotonic solution
(8 mM KCl), and fixed with Carnoy's fixative according to the procedure of Okamoto and Arimoto (1986).