Mounk recognizes this problem at the end of the chapter when he states, "Unless the defenders of liberal democracy manage to stand up to populists, illiberal democracy
will always be in danger of descending into outright dictatorship." This raises the question: if the broader electorate stands up to populists, why can't they also keep their rights as well as democracy?
The Hungarian Prime Minister advocates "Illiberal Democracy
" and cites Singapore, Russia, Turkey, and China as successful examples.
In an illiberal democracy
, the majority religion rules.
For Mounk, the rise of populism in Europe, the U.S., and Latin America thus portends a new regime type: "illiberal democracy
." Here he accepts the claim of Hungary's Viktor Orban that there actually is such a thing as illiberal democracy
, that substantial popular sovereignty can exist even as rulers curtail freedoms and pluralism just enough to entrench themselves.
Abetting the corrosive effects of undemocratic liberalism is what the author calls illiberal democracy
. This is the cultural side of the reaction to globalization.
Some well meaning Pakistanis had explained to friendly Indians the way their nation floated down from healthy liberal democracy to illiberal democracy
, then to illiberal theocracy, further down to military dictatorship, and finally to terrorist-fundamentalist state.
The term "Illiberal Democracy
" was attributed to Fareed Zakaria, from a book he published 20 years ago.
Citing the crucial work of Inglehart and Norris, (2) they perform the indispensable service of foregrounding for health researchers and practitioners a process that blind-sided many of us (myself included), even though Zakaria warned two decades ago about the rise of 'illiberal democracy
' (3); Freedom House identified the year 2006 as a turning point (4); and Diamond--one of the founding editors of Journal of Democracy, which these days is well worth reading--explicated multiple manifestations of the trend in 2015.
Accordingly, Orban now presides over what he proudly calls an "illiberal democracy
" that is spearheading an "Eastern opening." His strategy vis-a-vis the EU is tantamount to blackmail.
In addition, they see Turkey as an "illiberal democracy
," where free, but not fair, elections determine who will be the leader.
That is how Turkey's "democracy" has become an iconic "illiberal democracy
" in which a popularly elected government shrinks civil liberties and rule of law.
Matt Ginsberg's April 8 column motivated me to learn about Fareed Zakaria, "illiberal democracy
," Freedom House, Ginsberg and OnTime Systems ("Iranian nuclear deal defies lessons of history").