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In a memorandum, the bureau required importers to submit, as part of their registration, a list of importable items with a clear description in technical and tariff terms, and estimated volumes and values for the next 12 months.
Pero, advierte "que ia competencia internacional tambien ejerce presiones sobre el sector agricola productor de bienes importables"y por ello disena "un paquete de apoyos internos a los productores de los bienes mas sensibles a la disminucion de la proteccion en frontera, a traves del programa Agro, Ingreso Seguro (AIS)".
Therefore, the effect of domestic economic policies on the balance of payments can be studied in an analytic framework that treats exportables and importables as a single aggregate of internationally traded goods.
In particular, if the cash requirement ratio in the importable sector is higher than that in the exportable ([delta] > 0), then lowering taxes will decrease the cost of importables relative to that of the exportable good and hence will lead to an increase in imports; in other words, the two effects will reinforce each other.
Rather than focusing on the price of importables relative to exportables, Sjaastad [1980] Sjaastad and Clements [1981] and Clements and Sjaastad [1984] introduced the concept of taking the nontraded good as the numeraire to analyze the degree to which trade policies favor the export sector or the import sector relative to the nontraded good sector.
Within the agricultural sector, direct policies tended to tax exportables, protect importables, and partially compensate for indirect discrimination through input subsidies.
The effects of devaluation on income and employment are given as the combined effect of increases in the domestic prices of exportables and importables (that is, [p.sub.xE], [p.sub.mE] [greater than] 0).
The impact of an improvement in the terms of trade is most readily illustrated by assuming that all output consists of exportables and all absorption, including the goods and services consumed by wage-earners, consists of importables. It follows that an improvement in the terms of trade caused by a rise in export prices will raise the value of the marginal product of labour in money terms.
Finally, we assume that importables are subject to a specific tariff, t
Let us then consider the scenario emerging after just 12 months from now when the highest rate of tariff will be brought down to 35%, meaning all types of finished good will be importable at the maximum rate of 35%, or less.
At the operational level, Lake presumes that special interest groups within the United States persuade the representative legislative body, Congress, to seek protection for domestic producers of importables. The foreign policy executive, the president and his staff, tries to use trade policy as an instrument of international political affairs.
Instead of the two documents, new importers shall secure the AMO application form; BOC official receipt evidencing payment of P1,000 processing fee; affidavit designating authorized signatories in import entries; two valid IDs; NBI clearance; latest general information sheet; personal profile of applicant and responsible officers; company profile; address of warehouse; proof of lawful occupancy; list of importables (LOI); printed Client Profile Registration System (CPRS) notification; endorsement from the collector; BIR registration; latest income tax return; and mayor's permit.