The rhetoric behind this move has been cloaked in philanthropic terms that are consistent with the aims of the independent living movement
. In reality, however, this has proven to be a cost-cutting exercise (Vernon and Qureshi, 2000).
ADA, which represents the culmination of the first major stage of the independent living movement
, also has provided a strong impetus for the expansion of the movement.
The independent living movement
was launched as part of the social legislation (e.g., civil rights for minorities, equal rights for women and emphasis on consumerism) which swept the country during the late 1960s and early '70s.
Buoyed by these trends, but impatient with the pace of the changes now underway, the growing number of healthy and ambitious disabled men and women have united in two political formations, the Disability Rights Movement and the Independent Living Movement
. Allied with able-bodied members of families of disabled service consumers and sympathetic professionals (educators, medical doctors, psychologists, rehabilitation specialists, social workers, and architects), disability activists are demanding acceleration of the pace of both formal recognition of the rights of the disabled and of public and private accommodation of those requirements that would enable disabled people to become self-sufficient.(7)
Denise Sherer Jacobson is an interviewer/editor for the Disability Rights and Independent Living Movement
Project at the University of California.
The independence and confidence gained by individuals with significant disabilities receiving services through this consumer-directed approach was instrumental in developing the independent living movement
These issues become even more relevant to the field of rehabilitation with the advent of the independent living movement
and greater inclusion of elders in the mix of consumers.
Three currently existing programs, which reflect different definitions of disability, are the state-federal rehabilitation program, the special education program, and the independent living movement
However, it was found that even when a state contracted with an agency to be the legal employer of record of the attendant instead of the consumer, as in the case of the Agency with Choice ISO model, consumer choice, autonomy, control, and overall satisfaction could be maintained if the agency asserted a philosophy that reflected the basic goals of the independent living movement
Persons in the independent living movement
often state "dissatisfaction with the dependence fostered through actions of primary care personnel ...
Finally, rehabilitation systems, professionals, and families, perhaps in cooperation with the independent living movement
, might appropriately become involved in efforts to reduce the social isolation of women and men with disabilities.