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Hill's dismissive attitudes to religion may well have been part of the Swedish industrial working class reaction to the conservatism of Sweden's state church even though that country's working-class organizations themselves developed in part from the social gospel.
But it also contained 'an unresolved confusion' at its heart, because it wanted to appeal to the industrial working class and yet to be classless.
Labour was the party of the industrial working class, created by that class and representing its interests.
But it is both right and proper that the tradition of calling one of our finest handicaps "The Pitmen's Derby" should continue, an acknowledgment of their central role in creating modern Britain and their place in the vanguard of trying to better the lot of the industrial working class.
The two concepts are not synonymous: the Lumpenproletariat 'may, here and there, be swept into the movement by a proletarian revolution; its conditions of life, however, prepare it far more for the part of a bribed tool of reactionary intrigue', whereas the Industrial Reserve Army is a purely economic concept; it presumably refers however to elements of the industrial working class who, though now unemployed and perhaps available as scabs and strike breakers, are not yet sufficiently demoralized and atomized to be incapable of positive political action.
One of her main concerns is related to the local politics of naval dockyard towns and the particular difficulties they posed to an organized labor movement nominally committed to internationalism and disarmament, but significant secondary goals of her study include efforts to challenge narratives of national exceptionalism in labor history and to offer a new approach to labor history that goes beyond debates about the formation of the industrial working class towards understanding of the implications of labor ideology, party organization, and political behavior.
But power has certainly moved away from the traditional (and shrinking) industrial working class.
These are peasant movements, tribal movements, dalit movements, backward caste/class movements, women's movements, industrial working class movements, student movements, middle class movements, and human rights and environmental movements.
For example, classic Marxism sees the leading edge of revolt in the advanced industrial working class, while those at the very bottom--Marx's "lumpen"--are seen as having reactionary tendencies; and during the period of capitalism's ecological expansion this may have been true.
Charles Paul Freund's "Still Fab" (June) came to the triumphant conclusion that the roots of the Beatles were based in "the music and imagery of the Victorian and Edwardian pleasure palaces of the industrial working class.
Yet their appeal has been largely confined to a rural white population, and they have had little success in gaining a base in the industrial working class (though this will change if there is an economic down-turn of any seriousness later in the year).
The fundamental problem that will face the Labour Party is that it was built on the hopes and dreams of an industrial working class which will not exist in the new century.

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