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In the law of evidence, a truth or proposition drawn from another that is supposed or admitted to be true. A process of reasoning by which a fact or proposition sought to be established is deduced as a logical consequence from other facts, or a state of facts, already proved or admitted. A logical and reasonable conclusion of a fact not presented by direct evidence but which, by process of logic and reason, a trier of fact may conclude exists from the established facts. Inferences are deductions or conclusions that with reason and common sense lead the jury to draw from facts which have been established by the evidence in the case.


n. a rule of logic applied to evidence in a trial, in which a fact is "proved" by presenting other "facts" which lead to only one reasonable conclusion--that if A and B are true, then C is. The process is called "deduction" or "deductive reasoning," and is a persuasive form of circumstantial evidence. (See: circumstantial evidence)


noun allusion, assumption, conclusio, coniectura, conjecture, deduction, guess, hint, hypothesis, illation, implication, impression, inkling, judgment, observation, postulate, postulation, premise, presupposal, presupposition, speculation, supposal, supposition, surmise, suspicion, theorem, theory, thesis, understanding
Associated concepts: evidentiary inference, favorable inferrnce, legal inference, legitimate inference, presumption
Foreign phrases: Expressa nocent, non expressa non nooent.Things expressed may be prejudicial; that which is not expressed will not.
See also: conclusion, conjecture, connotation, construction, determination, generalization, hint, hypothesis, idea, innuendo, insinuation, intimation, mention, presumption, reference, referral, signification, speculation, suggestion, suspicion, uncertainty

INFERENCE. A conclusion drawn by reason from premises established by proof.
     2. It is the province of the judge who is to decide upon the facts to draw the inference. When the facts are submitted to the court, the judges draw the inference; when they are to be ascertained by a jury, it is their duty to do so. The witness is not permitted as a general rule to draw an inference, and testify that to the court or jury. It is his duty to state the facts simply as they occurred. Inferences differ from presumptions. (q.v.)

References in periodicals archive ?
We need to know what contributes to levels confusion, specifically those between inferences and observations.
Perhaps we take these uncalculated risks because we forget how little our inferences represent WIGO.
After the teacher worked with them to negotiate what a 'best' design might mean, the students used data to investigate and make inferences about the designs of loopy airplanes based on how far they flew.
Studies on the role of working memory capacity in the making of causal inferences have focused on connective inferences (Singer, Andrusiak, Reisdorf, & Black, 1992; Singer & Ritchot, 1996) and predictive inferences (Calvo, 2001; 2004; Estevez & Calvo 2000, Linderholm, 2002).
Non-monotonicity of material inferences, including those having this pattern, is what makes them defeasible inferences (Pinto, 2006, pp.
Several of the federal circuits have held that only a showing of negligence is required for an adverse inference instruction against the party responsible for the missing evidence.
Van den Broek (1994) describes the generation of inferences as a complicated cognitive activity consisting of sub-processes.
What the jury "must do is draw their conclusions from the evidence submitted to them or the reasonable inferences arising from it.
Alan Batterham and I have already presented an intuitively appealing vaguely Bayesian approach to using the confidence interval to make what we call magnitude-based inferences (Batterham and Hopkins, 2005; Batterham and Hopkins, 2006): if the true value could be substantial in both a positive and negative sense, the effect is unclear; otherwise it is clear and is deemed to have the magnitude of the observed value, preferably qualified with a probabilistic term (possibly trivial, very likely positive, and so on).
If an adverse inference is permitted, it usually results from the failure to produce a witness under a party's control, although there is also ample authority for drawing adverse inferences from failure to produce physical evidence within a party's control as well.
Thus, we were not justified to make any inferences for our model due to the violation of this assumption.
17) This jury instruction is commonly referred to as a "spoliation inference.