Presence of five testicular veins at the deep inguinal ring
; formation of two testicular veins in the abdomen and their variant termination into the inferior vena cava is the main feature of this report.
Laparoscopic Extracorporeal Ligation of the Internal Inguinal Ring
by a Spinal Needle: a Simple Method of Hernia Repair in Children.
The inguinal ring
was first examined to evaluate its patency, and then the bilateral iliac areas and pelvis were inspected.
Other terms used to describe the position of the palpable testis are peeping (sliding in and out of the internal inguinal ring
), canalicular, extra-canalicular (super-ficial inguinal pouch), suprapubic (high scrotal/gliding), or ectopic.
In the description of the original technique for the placement of bilayer patch device (Ethicon, Prolen Hernia System[R], PHS), which is a three-dimensional double layer device, the connector of the PHS has a role of a 'plug in', which is positioned in internal inguinal ring
, very close to the spermatic cord and in contact with the genital branch of genitofemoral nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, and sympathetic nerves (testicular plexus)(1,2).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of homologous pericardium grafts for internal inguinal ring
closure in horses, comparing mechanical or manual laparoscopic suture.
Diagnostic criteria of Inguinal Disruption (6) Clinical diagnosis of Inguinal Disruption (ID) can be made if 3 of the following 5 signs are present: 1 Pinpoint tenderness over the pubic tubercle at the point of insertion of the conjoint tendon 2 Palpable tenderness over the deep inguinal ring
3 Pain and/or dilation of the external ring with no obvious hernia evident 4 Pain at the origin of the adductor longus tendon 5 Dull, diffused pain in the groin, often radiating to the perineum and inner thigh or across the midline
The lesions showed continuity through the internal inguinal ring
and extended to parauterine space and myometrium (Fig.
(5) The clock-face is centered on the pubic tubercle and serves as a guide to what may be palpable on exam, including the superficial inguinal ring
, rectus abdominis insertion, pubic symphysis, and adductor longus insertion.
Due to high association with indirect inguinal hernia, dissection to the internal inguinal ring
and ligation of the neck of the processus vaginalis should be performed.
Testis reaches the iliac fossa in the third month, at deep inguinal ring
in the seventh month, in the inguinal canal at the eighth month and finally reaches at scrotum by the end of ninth month.
Intra-operative findings (Figure 2) showed a paraperitoneal subtotal prolapse of the bladder through the internal inguinal ring
, into the scrotum.