Joint

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Joint

United; coupled together in interest; shared between two or more persons; not solitary in interest or action but acting together or in unison. A combined, undivided effort or undertaking involving two or more individuals. Produced by or involving the concurring action of two or more; united in or possessing a common relation, action, or interest. To share common rights, duties, and liabilities.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

joint

adj., adv. referring to property, rights or obligations which are united, undivided and shared by two or more persons or entities. Thus, a joint property held by both cannot be effectively transferred unless all owners join in the transaction. If a creditor sues to collect a joint debt, he/she must include all the debtors in the lawsuit, unless the debt is specifically "joint and several," meaning anyone of the debtors may be individually liable. Therefore, care must be taken in drafting deeds, sales agreements, promissory notes, joint venture agreements, and other documents. A joint tenancy is treated specially, since it includes the right of the survivor to get the entire property when the other dies (right of survivorship). (See: joint tenancy, joint and several, joint venture, tenancy in common)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

JOINT. United, not separate; as, joint action, or one which is brought by several persons acting together; joint bond, a bond given by two or more obligors.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
The number needed to treat with physical therapy instead of intra-articular corticosteroids in order for one additional patient to achieve at least a 50% improvement in WOMAC score through 1 year of follow-up was four.
Godwin et al9 in asystematic review concluded that intra-articular corticosteroid injection results in clinically and statistically significant reduction in pain of OA knee 1 week after injection.
In our study, intra-articular PRP injections were performed via the posterior approach under sonography guidance to identify anatomic structures and to minimize potential complications (9).
In this study, significant relationships were determined between the intra-articular knee pathologies and the BC volume.
Patients received three weekly intra-articular injections of 2 mL of sodium hyaluronate (Hyalgan, Fidia Farmaceutici S.
Intra-articular injection of steroids are thought to be linked to the destruction of the knee, but there is no strong evidence which supports the progression of knee disease by steroid injections.7,12 Triamcinolone is chondro-protective and doesn't allow osteophyte formation to take place.7,12 Overall, steroids are safer and better compared to alternative strategies such as NSAIDs, because this disease is common in old age where NSAIDs are linked to many complications.2,7 Hence, this lack of toxicity is the main factor responsible for making intra-articular corticosteroid injections one of the main treatment options for KOA.7
However, intra-articular foreign bodies usually provoke remarkable inflammation.
Changes of cartilage and bone markers after intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment with and without postinjection rest in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Mean serum TNF-[alpha] level of the group that received only 0.9% NaCl solution injection without induction of OA to determine the effects of the trauma caused by intra-articular injection and were kept for 6 weeks as the rest of the treatment groups (Group IV) was 7418.8571 pg/ml (Table 1).
Since distal radius fracture is a debilitating injury that causes a significant burden to the individuals and society, it should be treated effectively and safely in the shortest time after the injury to obtain best outcome.19 Distal radius fractures can usually be treated by closed reduction and non-invasive fixation in most of the cases.20 However, for extra-articular or minimally displaced intra-articular fractures that are not stable with closed reduction and external fixation, surgical fixation should be performed.
MNX rats received intra-articular injection of either 1.5 x [10.sup.6] mesenchymal stem cells labelled with 10 [micro]g/ml SiMAG (MSC-MNP; n =11 rats), 1.5 x [10.sup.6] mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-VEH; n =12 rats), or serum-free media (SFM; n =12 rats).
Physical exam demonstrated significant pain and guarding with passive hip motion, particularly hip flexion past 90 degrees, and provocative maneuvers such as both flexion/adduction/internal rotation (FADIR) and flexion/abduction/external rotation (FABER), suggesting an intra-articular source of her discomfort.

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