Blair, John, Jr.

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Blair, John, Jr.

John Blair Jr., was among the original members of the U.S. Supreme Court. Nominated by President George Washington, Blair began his term as an associate justice shortly after the Court's establishment on February 2, 1790. Considered a fair-minded, incorruptible jurist, he remained on the bench for six years.

Blair was born in 1732 into a wealthy, well-established Virginia family. His parents were John Blair Sr., a public official with important political connections, and Mary Munro (or Monro) Blair, whose father was a rector in Virginia's St. John's Parish. In 1754, Blair graduated from the College of William and Mary (founded by his great-uncle), and he then studied law at Oxford's Middle Temple, in London.

In 1756 Blair returned to Virginia with his Scottish wife, Jean Balfour, and began a successful law practice in Williamsburg. He served in the House of Burgesses as a representative of William and Mary from 1766 to 1770. (The House of Burgesses was a colonial assembly of elected officials and the governor.) He served as clerk of the governor's council from 1770 to 1775. Blair attended the Virginia Constitutional Convention and the Virginia Privy Council in 1776. (The Privy Council was an advisory group to the English monarchy.)

Before his ascension to the U.S. Supreme Court, Blair performed judicial duties for various state courts. He became a judge on the newly established Virginia General Court in 1778. In 1780, he became chancellor of the high court of chancery and was appointed to Virginia's first court of appeals.

In the 1782 chancery case Commonwealth v. Caton, 8 Va. (4 Call) 5, Blair concluded that courts were entitled to review state legislation and to invalidate any laws found unconstitutional. The legal concept of judicial review—whereby the courts examine legislative acts and determine their constitutionality—was later embraced fully by the U.S. Supreme Court, in the landmark case marbury v. madison, 5 U.S. 137, 2 L. Ed. 60 (1803).

In 1787 Blair served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Soon afterward he was appointed to the Virginia Court of Appeals. Blair received his greatest judicial honor when President Washington nominated him, along with five other men, to the first High Court on September 24, 1789. (At the time, only six justices sat on the Supreme Court. By 1869 the number had risen to nine.) Blair was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on September 26, 1789.

"Being called upon for an account of what Money i may have in Hand belonging to his Majesty, i have only to say that i have not any."
—John Blair Jr.

As an associate justice, Blair took part in chisholm v. georgia, 2 U.S. 419, 1 L. Ed. 440 (1793), the Supreme Court's first major opinion. The issue before the Court was state sovereignty and whether a citizen of one state could sue another state in federal court over a disputed claim. The Supreme Court ruled that under Article III, Section 2, of the U.S. Constitution, a citizen of one state could indeed sue another state in federal court.

Many states decried the outcome of Chisholm, fearing lawsuits that would lead to economic disaster. Four years after the decision was handed down, Congress ratified the Eleventh Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibited citizens of one state from suing another state without the consent of the defendant state. The amendment in effect overturned Chisholm.

Until the 1860s, U.S. Supreme Court justices sat on a circuit court as well as the High Court. In Hayburn's Case, 2 U.S. 408, 1 L. Ed. 436 (1792), Blair broke new ground as a federal appeals judge by ruling that a congressional act ordering circuit judges to serve as Pension commissioners was unconstitutional. Blair noted that the supervision of a federal pension plan was not a judicial duty. He ruled that the designation of circuit judges as administrators violated the separation-of-powers doctrine.

Blair retired from the High Court on January 27, 1796, citing the stress of serving on both the Supreme Court and the circuit court, which in Blair's case stretched from New Jersey to Virginia. He died in his native Williamsburg at age sixty-eight, in 1800.

Further readings

Congressional Quarterly. 1989. Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Cushman, Claire, ed. 1993. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1993. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
John Blair, of Howat Street, Govan, is alleged to have set upon Maryann McManus in a flat in Porterfield Road, Renfrew, in 2014.
Sheep Blackface JC Quaich - David Rock; Champion Cromlix Trophy - David Rock; Reserve - Tay and Torridon; John Blair Trophy - David Rock; Argaty Challenge Cup - David Rock; Special prize group of Three - Tay and Torridon; Opposite sex champion - James Graham.
Six titles were shortlisted for the Wolfson History Prize 2019 and included: Building Anglo-Saxon England by John Blair; Birds in the Ancient World: Winged Words by Jeremy Mynott; Trading in War: London's Maritime World in the Age of Cook and Nelson by Margarette Lincoln; Oscar: A Life by Matthew Sturgis; and Empress: Queen Victoria and India by Miles Taylor.
John Blair, acting head teacher, added: "The phenomenal creative talent of our young artists and performers has been showcased well at this event and I am delighted with the standard and quality of pupil talent on display, both in the gallery and on stage.
In their 1987 research paper, John Blair and Robert Premus argue that trade-offs among various business variables are an important factor in determining profit-maximising industrial locations.
But in Kames, Argyll, John Blair and his family are continuing a family tradition - and describe it as a "labour of love".
He said yesterday Ulster Unionist Doug Beattie and John Blair of Alliance were the only ones to get in touch.
John Blair, who also awarded Xochihua with a commendation.
The show was billed as a mix of humour and drama as the Glasgow trio magnificently played by Liam (Robert Blair), Euan Ferguson (Hugh McDonald) and Ross McAree (John Blair), alongside Jamie Stewart (Colour Sgt James McKay), brought the show to life.
John Blair, chair of the board for First National Bank, said, 'We are pleased to announce the merger of First National Bank with OakStar Bank.
Morris began his career in 1970 at the John Blair Company in Columbus, Ohio, becoming its president before moving in 1989 to Products Research Corp., which later became PRC-DeSoto International.