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Related to Jugular venous pressure: central venous pressure
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Jugular venous pressure was elevated with prominent V wave, X and Y descents and Kussmaul sign was present.
Examination revealed raised jugular venous pressure (JVP), pitting pedal oedema, muffled heart sounds, bilateral pleural effusion and hepatomegaly.
By the time a clinician is able to identify signs like elevated jugular venous pressure, pulsatile hepatomegaly or edema; the patient is in right heart failure and it is already too late.
He was somnolent; his blood pressure was 100/71 mmHg, his heart rate was 71 bpm; his extremities were cold; his jugular venous pressure was 12 cm [H.
It turns out that the most sensitive physical exam finding for heart failure is an elevation in jugular venous pressure, and testing for this requires no specialized equipment.