Juris Doctor

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Juris Doctor

The degree awarded to an individual upon the successful completion of law school.

Juris doctor, or doctor of Jurisprudence, commonly abbreviated J.D., is the degree commonly conferred by law schools. It is required in all states except California (which includes an option called law office study) to gain Admission to the Bar. Gaining admission to the bar means obtaining a license to practice law in a particular state or in federal court.

Until the 1930s and 1940s, many states did not require a person to have a law school degree in order to obtain a license to practice law. Most lawyers qualified for a license by working as an apprentice for an established attorney for a specified period. By the 1950s most states required a law school degree. State legislatures established this requirement to raise the standards of practicing attorneys and to restrict the number of attorneys. The degree offered by most Colleges and Universities was called a master of laws (L.L.M.) degree. In the 1960s, as colleges and universities increased the requirements for a law degree, the J.D. replaced the L.L.M. as the primary degree awarded by law schools.

The specific requirements for a J.D. vary from school to school. Generally, the requirements include completing a minimum number of class hours each academic period, and taking certain mandatory courses such as contracts, torts, Civil Procedure, and Criminal Law in the first year of law school. All states require that students pass a course on Professional Responsibility before receiving a J.D. degree.

Further readings

Morgan, Thomas D., and Ronald D. Rotunda. 1993. Professional Responsibility: Problems and Materials. 5th ed. Westbury, N.Y.: Foundation Press.

Tuttle, Cliff. 1995. "Juris Doctor: The Versatile Degree." Pennsylvania Law Weekly 18 (December 11).


Legal Education.

Juris Doctor (J.D.)

n. the law degree granted upon graduation by many university law schools with accepted high standards of admission and grading. This often supersedes the Bachelor of Laws in recognition that the law curriculum entitles a person to a graduate degree.

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Smith earned his Juris Doctor degree from Columbia Law School in 1977.
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The graduating class included 64 graduates of the Juris Doctor program and 37 graduates who earned their Executive Juris Doctor degree.
Levine, a 25-year-old from Long Island, earned her juris doctor degree at Fordham University School of Law.
Maharaj earned his Juris Doctor degree from the School of Law at Santa Clara University where he earlier received his Bachelor of Business Administration.
Michael holds a Bachelor of Science degree in accounting and a Master of Science degree in tax from CW Post, and a Juris Doctor degree from St.
Kallenbach holds a juris doctor degree from New York University School of Law and a bachelor's degree in history from University of Pennsylvania.
Murphy holds a Juris Doctor degree from Fordham University Law School, New York, N.
Firfer received a Juris Doctor degree from The John Marshall Law School in Chicago in 1999, and has been working in the field of Information Technology since 1982.
Austin received her Juris Doctor degree and a master's in journalism from Columbia University.
Elliott earned a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in Accounting and Finance from Baylor University, Juris Doctor degree from Baylor University, and Master of Laws in Taxation from New York University.
Kurtz received her Juris Doctor degree from Northeastern University and her B.