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The state's new strategy of keeping control over the secular parameters of the republic required a more formalized relationship between the state and Islam, as well as a redefinition of laicism (Onis 1997).
He focuses on elucidating Ali AbdarraziqAEs (1888-1966) Islamic laicism and examines arguments and counterarguments of AbdarraziqAEs Arab critics and supporters.
33 Laicism (laicite : the French concept of secularism) refers to a strict separationist narrative in which religion is expelled from politics.
Key Words: Abortion; Democracy; Laicism; Religion and Politics; Liberalism.
The solutions designed to fulfill them--I mean: scientific and technological progress; formal and instrumental rationality; the modern bureaucratic state; the recognition of class, race and gender divisions and discriminations; the institutionalization of social conflict raised by them through democratic processes, development of national cultures and national identities, secularism and laicism; and so on and so forth--have not been able to deliver the objectives so strenuously struggled for.
An overview of these classifications of Western European countries by Robbers (separation scale), Barbier (laicism scale), Messner (openness scale) and Chaves and Cann (regulation scale) is summarized in Table 2.
Some of these are recounted by the bishop of Tuy, as is the following one, meant to inculcate popular laicism and its attendant anticlericalism: "Un lego predicaba sana doctrina y reprendia los vicios de los clerigos.
She identifies the 'no secularity, no modernity' thesis with laicism, which builds on Kant's 'rational religion' (p.65) to advocate the strict separation of church and state.
(114.) Mehmet Cengiz Uzun, The Protection of Laicism in Turkey and the Turkish Constitutional Court: The Example of the Prohibition on the Use of the Islamic Veil in Higher Education, 28 PENN.
Religious fundamentalism being now in principle a thing of the past, to avoid the present impasse of an intrinsically intolerant laicism stemming from empirical and/or essentialist extraversion, anthropology proposes paradigmatically that there can be "Nothing beyond Culture".
(91) Official censors were to examine already published books as well as papers or periodicals for any text that might be "infected with Modernism." (92) Congresses and public gatherings were also considered potential locations where modernists could congregate and disseminate their ideas; the risks were especially great when the presenter was a priest, leading to the rule that "in the future Bishops shall not permit Congresses of priests except on very rare occasions" and only dealing with subjects that made no mention of modernism, presbyterianism, or laicism. (93)
It belongs to the Roman Catholic Church (although it is not under control of any Church dioceses), it has got as its mission the evangelization of laicism, owns state of the art equipment, broadcasts intercontinental programmes and it does not "broadcast content seen as against Catholic moral doctrine, for example: the use of condoms in HIV/AIDS prevention" (23).