fingerprint

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fingerprint

an impression taken of the indents present on the finger tips. These have been used in the detection of crime since before the Fingerprint Bureau at Scotland Yard was established in 1901, relying on the hypothesis that no two people have the same fingerprint. The first conviction was secured in 1902. The process works by comparing distinctive features of the suspect print with a print found at the scene of the crime. Palm prints were used in 1931. In 2002 it was accepted that ear print evidence might be admissible but that scientific misgiving meant that it could be subject to critical cross-examination. The process is now computerized. See e.g. AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AFIS). While the roots of the use of fingerprints are in criminal investigation, computerization means that the same concept and technology can be used for basic civilian identification purposes, even secure use of personal equipment.
References in periodicals archive ?
& TECH., Fall 2003, at 47 ("Judge Pollak's first opinion [restricting latent fingerprint individualization testimony] was the better one."); Recent Case, United States v.
Ulery et al., Factors Associated with Latent Fingerprint Exclusion Determinations, 275 FORENSIC SCI.
latent fingerprint comparison conducted from 1995 to 2016 (in some years
This paper proposes a latent fingerprint segmentation method based on combination of the ridge density and orientation consistency, which are extracted to characterize both the global and local texture patterns of fingerprint image.
3 through 6, where they are applied to enhancing latent fingerprint 2.
In March 2012, Anhui Province secured the number one position by a large margin in an annual study conducted by Public Safety Authority that seeks to identify latent fingerprints from unresolved cases spanning the entire country.
"Latent fingerprint forensics are but one of the many active ways in which the U.S.
A latent fingerprint on an improvised explosive device can lead to a suspect if the print is in a database.
In the friction ridge discipline, an individualization is often reported as, "One latent fingerprint detected on a demand note has been identified as a fingerprint of JOHN DOE." Similarly, when testifying, an examiner often describes the individualization conclusion with a statement such as, "The latent print on Government's Exhibit 10, a revolver, and the fingerprint recorded in the right index finger block on the fingerprint card bearing the name 'John Doe' originated from the same source."
The trace, as a theme, is also illustrated by Beck's incorporation of "latent fingerprint powder." (Beck uses the material as he did mortician's "wound filler" in earlier work, as a ready-made layer of associations.) The evidentiary properties of the (barely visible) powder are shared by the (very visible) chalk in which variations on the exhibition title--SIGN MYSELF, ASSIGN ME, SINGLE MYSELF, SHELF MY SONG--were written, and increasingly smudged and footprinted, on the floor.
In a Baltimore County, Maryland, courtroom, a state circuit court judge ruled that testimony about latent fingerprint evidence was not admissible because the state could not prove that it had "a reliable factual foundation." In granting the defense motion to exclude the testimony, Judge Susan Souder likened unquestioning confidence in fingerprint evidence to some people's stubborn belief in a flat Earth.