2009, The locus coeruleus
and noradrenergic modulation of cognition, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 3, 211-23.
complex: elicitation of a pressor response and a brain stem region necessary for its occurrence.
A reevaluation of the effects of lesions of the pontine tegmentum and locus coeruleus
on phenomenon of paradoxical sleep in the cat.
Selective prefrontal cortical projections to the region of the locus coeruleus
and raphe nuclei in the rhesus monkey.
Future research should attempt to answer this question, focusing on the activity of the noradrenergic system of the locus coeruleus
in perceptual responses to environmental stimuli, motivation emotion, stress, and modulation of attention.
Dexmedetomidine injection into the locus coeruleus
Receptors for gonadal hormones have been identified in the amygdala, hippocampus, cortex, basal forebrain, cerebellum, locus coeruleus
, midbrain raphe nuclei, glial cells, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and central gray matter.
prostigmine, an inhibitor of acetyl cholinesterase that crosses the blood-brain-barrier and excites NA neurons of the locus coeruleus
(LC)-NA neurons (A6 nucleus).
Exposure to bisphenol A during the fetal and suckling periods disrupts sexual differentiation of the locus coeruleus
and of behavior in the rat Neurosci Left 304:73-76.
Such studies show that neglect and trauma increase production of cortisol and decrease production of the thyroid hormone, which affect development of neurochemical and neurotransmitter receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala and locus coeruleus
, parts of the brain that regulate fear and anxiety.
Norepinephrine--the main neurotransmitter responsible for sympathetic drive--is released directly into the blood from the peripheral and the neurosympathetic fibers, affecting the locus coeruleus
in the brain.