magistrate

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Magistrate

Any individual who has the power of a public civil officer or inferior judicial officer, such as a Justice of the Peace.

The various state judicial systems provide for judicial officers who are often called magistrates, justices of the peace, or police justices. The authority of these officials is restricted by statute, and jurisdiction is commonly limited to the county in which the official presides. The position may be elected or appointed, depending on the governing state statute. The exact role of the official varies by state; it may include handling hearings regarding violations of motor vehicle codes or breaches of the peace, presiding over criminal preliminary hearings, officiating marriages, and dispensing civil actions involving small sums of money.

U.S. magistrates are judicial officers appointed by the judges of federal district courts pursuant to the United States Magistrates Act (28 U.S.C.A. §§ 631 et seq.), enacted in 1968. This act was designed to reduce the workload of federal courts by replacing the old system of U.S. commissioners with a new system of U.S. magistrates. U.S. magistrates can perform more judicial functions than could U.S. commissioners. Federal magistrates may be assigned some, but not all, of the duties of a federal judge. They may serve as special masters (persons appointed by the court to carry out a particular judicial function on behalf of the court), supervise pretrial or discovery proceedings, and provide preliminary consideration of petitions for postconviction relief. U.S. magistrates generally may not decide motions to dismiss or motions for Summary Judgment, because these motions involve ultimate decision making, a responsibility and duty of the federal courts. However, if all the parties to a case agree, a federal magistrate may decide such motions and may even conduct a civil or misdemeanor criminal trial. Federal magistrates are not permitted to preside over felony trials or over jury selection in felony cases.

magistrate

n. 1) a generic term for any judge of a court, or anyone officially performing a judge's functions. 2) In a few states, an officer of the court at the lowest level which hears small claims lawsuits, serves as a judge for charges of minor crimes, and/or conducts preliminary hearings in criminal cases to determine if there is enough evidence presented by the prosecution to hold the accused for trial. 3) in Federal Courts, an official who conducts routine hearings assigned by the federal judges, including preliminary hearings in criminal cases. (See: judge, justice of the peace, preliminary hearing)

magistrate

noun arbitrator, assessor, judge, jurist, justice, legist, moderator, officer, official
See also: bench, caretaker, judge, jurist

magistrate

an inferior judge. In England and Scotland, they are primarily lay posts filled by ordinary members of the public. Stipendiary magistrates are qualified lawyers who hold the post in the busiest courts.

MAGISTRATE, mun. law. A public civil officer, invested with some part of the legislative, executive, or judicial power given by the constitution. In a narrower sense this term includes only inferior judicial officers, as justices of the peace.
     2. The president of the United States is the chief magistrate of this nation; the governors are the chief magistrates of their respective states.
     3. It is the duty of all magistrates to exercise the power, vested in them for the good of the people, according to law, and with zeal and fidelity. A neglect on the part of a magistrate to exercise the functions of his office, when required by law, is a misdemeanor. Vide 15 Vin. Ab. 144; Ayl. Pand. tit. 22; Dig. 30, 16, 57; Merl. Rep. h.t.; 13 Pick. R. 523.

References in periodicals archive ?
Contact point(s): Magistrat der Stadt Wien Magistratsabteilung 28
Trente-deux magistrats de deuxieme grade ont ete promus au 1er grade, 155 juges de troisieme grade ont ete promus au deuxieme grade, dont 24 etaient charges de mission dans ce grade, ajoute la meme source.
beaucoup moins que]Parmi eux, des magistrats membres de la Cour supreme et des tribunaux criminels avec pres de 30 ans d'experience[beaucoup plus grand que], a-t-il precise.
Au moment de l'installation du Conseil, une prime a ete decretee en faveur des magistrats a l'instar du salaire percu par les juges de l'instance provisoire de la magistrature, evalue a environ 800 dinars", a-t-il fait savoir.
A ce propos, Garafi a appele les magistrats concernes a intenter des recours a cet effet.
Le Syndicat national des magistrats (SNM) a remis une plateforme sur l'amendement de la Constitution a la commission chargee des consultations politiques.
Passons a la troisieme categorie d'avocats, il s'agit en l'occurrence des magistrats chercheurs.
La plateforme des revendications du Syndicat national des magistrats est axee sur l'importance de l'independance du pouvoir judiciaire vis-a-vis des pouvoirs legislatif et executif.
Les magistrats s'opposeront a cette decision par tous les moyens et pourront meme suspendre toute activite dans les tribunaux jusqu'a la fin de l'annee judiciaire, a-t-il menace.
Article 102 stipule que "le magistrat beneficie d'une immunite judiciaire, il ne peut etre poursuivi ou arrete tant qu'elle n'a pas ete levee.
Le Syndicat des magistrats tunisiens (SMT) a denonce les incidents survenus, lundi, au Tribunal administratif de Ben Arous oo plusieurs securitaires " se sont rassembles dans l'enceinte du tribunal avec leur armes de service alors que d'autres avaient encercle le batiment par les voitures de police ".
Il a rappele que des magistrats presideront les permanences communaux et de wilaya.