Marshall Plan

(redirected from Marshal plan)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to Marshal plan: Eisenhower Doctrine

Marshall Plan

After World War II, Europe was devastated and urgently needed an organized plan for reconstruction and economic and technical aid. The Marshall Plan was initiated in 1947 to meet this need.

The originator of the plan, U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall, introduced it in a speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947. He pointed out two basic reasons for providing aid to Europe: the United States sought the reestablishment of the European countries as independent nations capable of conducting valuable trade with the United States; and the threat of a Communist takeover was more prevalent in countries that were suffering economic depression.

In 1947 a preliminary conference to discuss the terms of the program convened in Paris. The Soviet Union was invited to attend but subsequently withdrew from the program, as did other Soviet countries.

Sixteen European countries eventually participated, and, in July 1947, the Committee for European Economic Cooperation was established to allow representatives from member countries to draft a report that listed their requirements for food, supplies, and technical assistance for a four-year period.

The Committee for European Economic Cooperation subsequently became the Organization of European Economic Cooperation, an expanded and permanent organization that was responsible for submitting petitions for aid. In 1948, Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act (62 Stat. 137), establishing funds for the Marshall Plan to be administered under the Economic Cooperation Administration, which was directed by Paul G. Hoffman.

Between 1948 and 1952, the sixteen-member countries received more than $13 billion dollars in aid under the Marshall Plan. The plan was generally regarded as a success that led to industrial and agricultural production, while stifling the Communist movement. The plan was not without its critics, however, and many Europeans believed the Cold War hostilities between the Soviet nations and the free world were aggravated by it.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The rehabilitation shall be preceded by declaring FATA a war turn zone and allotted with none lapsable special relief package on the pattern of a marshal plan.
As we realise that we will all need a Green Marshal Plan' if we are all going to be able to thrive on our fragile planet.
The Marshal Plan helped to rebuild the shattered portions of the world.
"There are a number of issues, including safety, that have to be sorted out before the sky marshal plan can go ahead," said ANA spokesman Shinichi Shinkawa.
A spokesperson for ANA confirmed that the sky marshal plan was under discussion but said there were safety issues to be sorted out first.
Balpa has already voiced its opposition to the sky marshal plan and airlines also said yesterday they were unhappy about it.
Transport Secretary Alistair Darling, who first announced the sky marshal plan a year ago, said yesterday that pilots would be informed if there was a sky marshal on their flight.
All fifteen EU Member States already have bilateral extradition agreements with the Americans and eleven have signed judicial assistance treaties.Austrian air marshal plan."The use of air marshals is of great value", according to a recently-drafted Austrian discussion paper.
Has Mrs St Clair also forgotten lease/lend and the Marshal Plan?
Following World War II Secretary of State Dean Acheson instructed the Economic Cooperation Administration or the Marshal Plan "in every petroleum transaction an American company must be involved" and "deliveries [of oil] from sources other than the United States and possessions will be eligible only if made by American owned and operated companies." (2)
has provided a steady flow of dollars into European and Japanese economies through both active direct investments and foreign aid programs under the Marshal Plan.