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It favors mechanisms that allow males to increase number of sperm per ejaculate (Birkhead and Mller, 1998) or strategies that minimize risk of sperm competition, such as direct or indirect mate guarding (Voss, 1979; Dixson and Anderson, 2002).
The post-copulatory association observed in some tiger beetles has been established to be a mate guarding behavior (Kraus & Lederhouse 1982; Shivashankar & Pearson 1994).
First, two mating pairs were together for over 60 hours (but < 72), presumably extensive mate guarding (Sivinski 1983; Brock 1999).
Variable mate guarding time and sperm allocation by male snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) in response to sexual competition, and their impact on the mating success of females.
African birds called tropical boubous (Laniarius aethiopicus) also show signs of mate guarding, but with a twist, Ulmar Grafe and Johannes Bitz of the University of Wurzburg in Germany reported in 2004.
How TL and Bull CM (2002) Reunion vigour: an experimental test of the mate guarding hypothesis in the monogamous sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa).
Based on data derived from studies of animal behaviour (and Hirundo rustica features prominently), the authors contend that complicated strategies of mate selection, pair-bonding, mate guarding, and, in particular, extra-couple sexual affairs were being enacted.
Experimental studies on waterstriders have shown that mating and mate guarding can increase predation risk (Fairbairn 1991, Rowe 1994), and mating frequency and foraging decreases if predators are present (Sih et al.
DNA fingerprinting confirms that mate guarding is an accurate cue to a preceding copulation in this species (Gullberg et al.
We describe a novel pull force test that measures the force crabs use to hold onto a mesh grid, mimicking the way a male holds a female during mate guarding.
The stress, they suggested, was probably because of the demands of fighting off challengers and guarding access to fertile females, while beta males, who fought less and had considerably less mate guarding to do, had much lower stress levels.
We analyzed sun exposure, cloud cover, vegetation type, spatial relation to bushes and trees, visual exposure, propensity to lay near objects, group laying, and mate guarding using Chi-square; for other variables we used Student's t-test.