Truth

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TRUTH. The actual state of things.
     2. In contracts, the parties are bound to toll the truth in their dealings, and a deviation from it will generally avoid the contract; Newl. on Contr. 352-3; 2 Burr. 1011; 3 Campb. 285; and even concealment, or suppressio veri, will be considered fraudulent in the contract of insurance. 1 Marsh. on Ins. 464; Peake's N. P. C. 115; 3 Campb. 154, 506.
     3. In giving his testimony, a witness is required to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; for the object in the examination of matters of fact, is to ascertain truth.
     4. When a defendant is sued civilly for slander or a libel, he may justify by giving the truth in evidence; but when a criminal prosecution is instituted by the commonwealth for a libel, he cannot generally justify by giving the truth in evidence.
     5. The constitutions of several of the United States have made special provisions in favor of giving the truth in evidence in prosecutions for libels, under particular circumstances. In the constitutions of Pennsylvania, Delaware, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, it is declared, that in publications for libels on men in respect to their public official conduct, the truth may be given in evidence, when the matter published was proper for public information. The constitution of New York declares, that in all prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous, is true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted. By constitutional provision in Mississippi and Missouri, and by legislative enactment in New Jersey, Arkansas, Tennessee, Act of 1805, c. 6: and Vermont, Rev. Stat. tit. 11, c. 25, s. 68; the right to give the truth in evidence has been more extended; it applies to all prosecutions or indictments for libels, without any qualifications annexed in restraint of the privilege. Cooke on Def. 61.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
The collaboration throws down a gauntlet against claims of ownership of mathematical truths. As Craig Citro wrote in the Google Research blog (googleresearch.blogspot.
No consistent axiomatic system proves all mathematical truths.
(10) What is amiss in classical mathematics, Brouwer conjectured, is a clear ontological insight into the nature of mathematical truth and existence.
In his book Belief in God in an Age of Science, Polkinghorne notes that mathematician Gregor Cantor "took the Platonic view that mathematics is the exploration of an existing noetic (i.e., intellectual) realm." Like the concept of the circle, mathematical truths appear to exist independent of mankind.
This logical assault on mathematical truth continued in the work of Kurt Godel, an esteemed associate of Albert Einstein.
Fourth, humans can do something that no Turing machine and, hence, no computer can do, namely, recognize mathematical truth.
[1975]: 'What is Mathematical Truth?' Mathematics, Matter and Method: Philosophical Papers, Vol.
In a pair of recent books, Oxford mathematician Roger Penrose has argued forcefully, and controversially, that the human mind possesses physical capabilities that enable it to reach into a realm of reality that lies beyond time and space, to a Platonic world of timeless mathematical truth.(8) Penrose bases this claim on the assertion that a material computer can never duplicate, or simulate, all the thinking processes of human beings.
I think the cosmology in the pages of From Newton's Sleep, or I should say beyond those pages, is compatible with the experience of mathematical truth and scientific truth, with their intrinsic and material rewards, their confirmations, reinforcements, uncanny matchings -- with the continuing discovery of a generous responsiveness in the natural world.
On the inferentialist account, to reiterate, mathematical truth coincides with concrete adequacy, and mathematical falsity coincides with concrete inadequacy.
(30) For further elaboration, see Glen Van Brummelen, "Mathematical Truth: A Cultural Study," in Mathematics in a Postmodern Age: A Christian Perspective, ed.
On this interpretation, the sentence shows the existence of a "mathematical truth" that cannot be proven by a formal system such as Prinicipia Mathematica and thus demonstrates the incompleteness of that system.

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