Objective: To determine the efficacy of nalbuphine in preventing increase in heart rate and mean arterial pressure
in response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
TABLE 1: Differences between patient systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure
taken with direct-invasive (IBP) and, respectively, with auscultatory-aneroid (ABP) and oscillometric automated (OBP) methods.
Mean Arterial Pressure
. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, Retrieved November 21, 2010, from http:// www.cvphysiology.com/ Blood%20Pressure/BP006.htm.
The observance of a loss of anal responsiveness to suture and of a decrease in mean arterial pressure
or heart rate below the defined values after injection, together with the observance of positive response to the HD test prior to injection and with the presence of residual motor block during recovery phase, was considered indicative of successful epidural injection and correct needle position; therefore, dogs which fulfilled all these conditions but showed EPW neither prior to nor after epidural injection were considered false negatives.
They were excluded if they had haemodynamic instability (defined as a heart rate > 130 bpm and mean arterial pressure
< 60 mmHg), used vasopressor drugs, had acute bronchospasm, had acute respiratory distress syndrome, had atelectasis (identified by an independent radiologist), were immediately post neurosurgery, had an untreated pneumothorax, had lung haemorrhage, or were unable to be positioned in sidelying.
Dependent variables comprised systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure
and heart rate.
In the EUC group, 24 hr systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure
(MAP) significantly decreased by 5, 3, and 3 mm Hg, respectively from baseline at 6 weeks (p<0.05), but were no longer significant at 12 weeks.
The group taking a 400 mg tablet demonstrated significantly decreased standing systolic BP and mean arterial pressure
, evincing saffron's valuable hypotensive action.
Phenylephrine infusion at the rate of 300 [micro]g/min and crystalloids were required to increase the mean arterial pressure
and maintain cerebral perfusion pressure at greater than 70 mm Hg.
Forearm vascular resistance was calculated from the ratio of mean arterial pressure
to forearm blood flow.