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Related to Measures of central tendency: standard deviation, measures of dispersion

AVERAGE. A term used in commerce to signify a contribution made by the owners of the ship, freight and goods, on board, in proportion to their respective interests, towards any particular loss or expense sustained for the general safety of the ship and cargo; to the end that the particular loser may not be a greater sufferer than the owner of the ship and the other owners of goods on board. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7; Code de Com. art. 397; 2 Hov. Supp. to Ves. jr. 407; Poth. Aver. art. Prel.
     2. Average is called general or gross average, because it falls generally upon the whole or gross amount of the ship, freight and cargo; and also to distinguish it from what is often though improperly termed particular average, but which in truth means a particular or partial, and not a general loss; or has no affinity to average properly so called. Besides these there are other small charges, called petty or accustomed averages; such as pilotage, towage, light-money, beaconage, anchorage, bridge toll, quarantine, river charges, signals, instructions, castle money, pier money, digging the ship out of the ice, and the like.
     3. A contribution upon general average can only be claimed in cases where, upon as much deliberate on and consultation between the captain and his officers as the occasion will admit of, it appears that the sacrifice at the time it was made, was absolutely and indispensably necessary for the preservation of the ship and cargo. To entitle the owner of the goods to an average contribution, the loss must evidently conduce to the preservation of the ship and the rest of the cargo; and it must appear that the ship and the rest of the cargo were in fact saved. Show. Ca. Parl. 20. See generally Code de Com. tit. 11 and 12; Park, Ins. c. 6; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7 4 Mass. 548; 6 Mass. 125; 8 Mass. 467; 1 Caines' R. 196; 4 Dall. 459; 2 Binn. 547 4 Binn. 513; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 237, in note; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 229 3 Johns. Cas. 178; 1 Caines' R. 43; 2 Caines' R. 263; Id. 274; 8 Johns. R. 237, 2d edit 9 Johns. R. 9; 11 Johns. R 315 1 Caines' R. 573; 7 Johns R. 412; Wesk. Ins. tit. Average; 2 Barn. & Crest. 811 1 Rob. Adlm. Rep. 293; 2 New Rep. 378 18 Ves. 187; Lex. Mer. Armer. ch. 9; Bac Abr. Merchant, F; Vin. Abr. Contribution and' Average; Stev. on Av.; Ben. on Av.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the sixteenth post to the discussion board, she wrote, I think that in terms of measures of central tendency we do students a disservice if we teach children to average a list of numbers without tying it to the specific reason we are investigating the numbers.
The information about levels of measurement is used to determine which measures of central tendency can appropriately be used to describe a distribution.
Table 2 Comparison of Measures of Central Tendency of IDP scores for Nursing and Administrative Professionals Measure Nurses Administrators Mean 71.25 66.41 Median 71.00 66.50 Mode 65.00 66.00 Standard Deviation 8.62 9.10 Range 49.00 51.00 Sample size 76 75
This procedure produces six indexes: Two "standard" units (1982 characteristics and 1987 characteristics), each using three measures of central tendency. Calculating these 6 indexes for both rental and condominium units produces the 12 indexes shown in table 5.
The proposed regulations provide the if statistical techniques were used to construct the CPI, the most appropriate point should be determined using statistical measures of central tendency. If statistical techniques are not used, various qualitative factors are to be considered, with special weight being accorded to those particular comparables and PLIs that appear to be most relevant.
Measures of central tendency, variability, skewness, and standard error were calculated to ascertain how the test performed with this sample.
West, "Standard Measures of Central Tendency for Censored Earnings Data from the Current Population Survey," a BLS statistical note, available from the Office of Research and Evaluation, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The author has organized the main body of his text in thirteen chapters focused on creating and using frequency distributions, summarizing scores with measures of central tendency, summarizing scores with measures of variability, hypothesis testing, and many other related subjects.