Merchant

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LAW, MERCHANT. A system of customs acknowledged and taken notice of by all commercial nations; and those customs constitute a part of the general law of the land; and being a part of that law their existence cannot be proved by witnesses, but the judges are bound to take notice of them ex officio. See Beawes' Lex Mercatoria Rediviva; Caines' Lex Mercatoria Americana; Com. Dig. Merchant, D; Chit. Comm. Law; Pardess. Droit Commercial; Collection des Lois Maritimes anterieure au dix hutiŠme siŠcle, par Dupin; Capmany, Costumbres Maritimas; II Consolato del Mare; Us et Coutumes de la Mer; Piantandia, Della Giurisprudenze Maritina Commerciale, Antica e Moderna; Valin, Commentaire sur l'Ordonnance de la Marine, du Mois d'Aout, 1681; Boulay-Paty, Dr. Comm.; Boucher, Institutions au Droit Maritime.

MERCHANT. One whose business it is to buy and sell merchandise; this applies to all persons who habitually trade in merchandise. 1 Watts & S. 469; 2 Salk. 445.
     2. In another sense, it signifies a person who owns ships, and trades, by means of them, with foreign nations, or with the different States of the United States; these are known by the name of shipping merchants. Com. Dig. Merchant, A; Dyer, R. 279 b; Bac. Ab. h.t.
     3. According to an old authority, there are four species of merchants, namely, merchant adventurers, merchant dormant, merchant travellers, and merchant residents. 2 Brownl. 99. Vide, generally, 9 Salk. R. 445; Bac. Ab. h.t.; Com. Dig. h.t.; 1 Bl. Com. 75, 260; 1 Pard. Dr. Com. n. 78

References in periodicals archive ?
The big landlords enlarged their estates at the expense of small landowners.70 In the following years, the position of agriculturist tribes was strengthened as they replaced mercantile classes for lending money and indebted cultivators surrendered right to sell land or its produce to them until the lent money was repaid.
them" situation prevalent in London that was behind the passage of the sumptuary laws and the spate of works I considered earlier that described hierarchichal relationships in detail, Heywood's work not only shows how the gentry can profit by hard work, but more radically suggests a way for members of the problematic lower gentry/upper mercantile class to work together for the benefit of all, including the state.
Ironically, the feudal and mercantile classes dominated leadership of political parties has restricted to greater extent the mandate of HEC in these areas under the much eulogized 18th Amendment.
This genie raised its head out of bottle when the foundation of regressive fiscal policy of taxing the poor people with indirect taxes was laid in Benazir Bhutto first tenure of government to benefit the feudal and mercantile classes. It gained momentum in the successive tenures of elected governments of two mainstream political parties in which ANP had remained an active coalition partner.
By the fourteenth century, the rise of the mercantile classes and the use of mediation to settle disputes reduced the need to exclude people because of lawlessness.
But unfortunately, in Pakistan the political elite of feudal and mercantile classes describe the on going across the board process of accountability as conspiracy against democracy, the 18th amendment and peoples' basic rights.
Why the number dropped to 1.2 million during the previous two governments of feudal and mercantile classes? What measures the present government will take to bring back the 50 percent active taxpayers back to tax net and net the non-filers and tax dodgers?
But ironically, the door on hydropower generation was slammed deliberately by making it the proverbial prohibited fruit by the ruling feudal and mercantile classes. Hopefully, PTI government will give top priority to construction of storage dams and hydel power stations thereon.
The people while voting to power PTI in July 2018 elections expected better performance and people friendly attitude keeping in view the honesty of Imran Khan and his people friendly attitude but now they find him not much different than the traditional politicians who belong to the exploitative feudal and mercantile classes.
The political elite of feudal and mercantile classes still hold sway over the political system and power structure and it will be a wishful thinking to believe that the incumbent government will be able to include taxation measures that hit the rich people.
Most of these risk factors have been made an integral part of the politico-economic system by the government two mainstream political parties to strengthen the hold of feudal and mercantile classes on the corridors of power and obtain exclusive control over national resources.