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The standard merge sort algorithm works as follows: In the "run" formation phase, the N/B tracks are inputted into memory, in groups of one memoryload at a time; each memoryload is sorted into a "run," which is then output to consecutive positions on disk.
1), the number of I/Os performed by the standard merge sort would be
An algorithm for permutting records that takes advantage of locality of reference on the disk is given; it achieves better running times than merge sort in this model when the files size is large.