We evaluated the effect of rehabilitation treatments on plant, mineral soil
, litter, and rock cover in August 2016 with a gridded point-intercept method in 1 [m.sup.2] sample quadrats.
Spinning, digging and slipping may mix mineral soil
and litter resulting in increasing of displacement, rutting and decreasing of litter mass.
Two depressions in the surface of mineral soil
and ridges oriented perpendicular to the general gradient of sloping favoured the formation of two shallow lakes where the infilling started.
For HA from the mineral soil
, a rise in the direction of the flow of groundwater leads to a rise in carbohydrate C (65-100 ppm) and C in carbonyl-containing groups, predominantly carboxyl (165-200 ppm).
was sampled with metallic auger of 2.5 cm diameter.
The error estimations of these equations for mineral soil
and organic soil are 0.015 and 0.035 [cm.sup.3] [cm.sup.-3], respectively .
Conversely, studies of riparian and mineral soil
wetlands have compared mineral soils
in different types of riparian wetlands or in different locations (Groffman et al., 1992; Verhoeven et al., 2001; Bechtold and Naiman, 2006; Wassen and Olde Venterink, 2006), and have emphasized the role of soil textural differences, geomorphological influences on water flow, and atmospheric deposition as controlling factors differentiating sites.
Also, the mineral soil
surface layer is the main volume relevant for the spatial survey of carbon storage, according to the Kyoto Protocol requirements (Smith et al., 2002; Schulp et al., 2008; Vesterdal et al., 2008).
The area must be cleared down to mineral soil
with a minimum distance of 10 feet around the material being burned.
Kalbitz K, Schwesig D, Rethemeyer J, Matzner E (2005) Stabilization of dissolved organic matter by sorption to the mineral soil
. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 1319-1331.
(2009) noted that high-severity fires alter the vegetative cover and characteristics of mineral soil
, making it difficult to separate the effects of fire-induced soil water repellency from other changes in soil characteristics and surface cover.
Furthermore, its removal exposes mineral soil
, which gives invasive plants the upper hand over native ones.