dna

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Related to Mitochondrial DNA: Mitochondrial disease

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Harmful mutations in mitochondrial DNA can, result in serious and life threatening diseases.
Using standard techniques, researchers extracted DNA from whole blood samples for each participant and quantified telomere length and mtDNA copy number, a measure of mitochondrial DNA content.
Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA variation among three species of Stizostedion (Percidae): phylogenetic and zoogeographical implications.
As mitochondrial DNA is the first site of ROS induced attack, majority of mitochondrial genes have migrated to the nuclear genome during the course of evolution, and nature has selected only paternal nuclear DNA to be transmitted to offspring.
My mitochondrial DNA is virtually the same as the mitochondrial DNA of the original Tara - give or take a few genetic mutations.
Also very highly recommended is Colleen Fitzpatrick's related instructional reference DNA & Genealogy (0976716011) with its focus on the genetic trail an ancestor leaves behind which can be traced through Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA testing, offering heretofore unavailable genetics-based expertise to genealogical inquiry for non-specialist general readers with an interest in developing their own genealogical inquiries.
All other types of nuclear transfer cloning produce clones that contain mitochondrial DNA originating in the cytoplasm of the oocyte.
AMSTERDAM, April 18 /PRNewswire/ -- Primagen Holding BV, a molecular diagnostics company specialising in infectious disease and oncology, announced today that the US Patent and Trademark Office has granted a patent for its Mitox(TM) mitochondrial DNA quantification technology as biomarkers for efficacy and adverse events of treatment.
8 percent of its mitochondrial DNA with the woolly mammoth.
Interestingly, the research done by Genesis Genomics shows the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) play a "very important role in cardiac muscle," Thayer explains.
Bestselling author of travelogues, Bryson has collected facts from hundreds of books, articles, and interviews to give his readers a short course in science, a subject he admits to disliking in school Bryson takes his readers on a whirlwind tour through the Universe, subatomic particles, the origin of heavy elements, the Big Bang, Isaac Newton, the age and weight of the Earth, geology, paleontology, chemistry, Sir Humphrey Davy, the Curies, the atomic age, Einstein, Edwin Hubble, Niels Bohr, quantum mechanics, radiocarbon dating, holes in the ozone, astronomy, plate tectonics, Darwin's Origin of Species, supernovae, the oceans and how life started in them, binomial taxonomy, Leeuwenhoek, Gregor Mendel, Watson and Crick, and recent studies in mitochondrial DNA.
To date, a majority of the studies have used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), an abundant, rapidly evolving source of genetic material.

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