DNA

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Related to Mitochondrial DNA: Mitochondrial disease

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The regulation of mitochondrial dna copy number in glioblastoma cells.
The genetic diversity of chicken breeds from Jiangxi, assessed with BCDO2 and the complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.
Bogenhagen, "Human mitochondrial DNA nucleoids are linked to protein folding machinery and metabolic enzymes at the mitochondrial inner membrane," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
In this study, rather than studying one iPS cell line, the researchers derived and sequenced 10 iPS cell clones from each patient tissue sample to get a better understanding of mitochondrial DNA mutation rates.
Harmful mutations in mitochondrial DNA can, result in serious and life threatening diseases.
Recent studies have examined the possible connection between mitochondria and psychiatric disorders, but the research is very limited, and no prior work has examined the relationship of mitochondrial DNA to psychosocial stress.
Mitochondrial DNA only affects energy production, not all the characteristics that make a person a recognisable individual.
Vogelstein's team found that more than 80% of cancers had mutations in their mitochondrial DNA. These changes are easy to identify because the mitochondrial DNA genome is so small--just 16,000 units--compared with the three billion units of the genome in the cell's nucleus.
By studying mitochondrial DNA, ichthyologists have come to the conclusion that the genus Sander originated in Europe, and the North American branch separated from the zander group some 10 million years ago.
(9) ROS are generated both at exogenous and endogenous levels and can damage different parts of the spermatozoa including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and thus impair sperm function.
The Druze harbor a remarkable diversity of mitochondrial DNA types or lineages that appear to have separated from each other many thousands of years ago, according to a new study by multinational team, led by researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Rappaport School of Medicine.

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