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While the Mayas were the only Amerindian group to develop a complete writing system to record their literature, most pre-Conquest cultures had highly sophisticated mnemonic aids and traditions of memorization.
In 151 folios, this manuscript preserves eleven complete theoretical texts, including the Musica enchiriadis, Scolica enchiriadis (with unusual interpolations of diverse materials), and Alia musica, the Micrologus and three other treatises by Guido d'Arezzo, and pseudo-Odo's Dialogus de musica; chapters from Aurelian of Reome's Musica disciplina; passages from Macrobius, Martianus Capella, Cassiodorus, and Isidore of Seville; plus anonymous excerpts, four tonaries, assorted mnemonic aids for the modes, poems, and a variety of illustrations.
An early essay suggesting that some manuscript illustration programs were both mnemonic aids and tools for thinking is Claire Richter Sherman, "Some Visual Definitions in the Illustrations of Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics and Politics in the French Translation of Nicholas Oresme," Art Bulletin, 59 (1977), 320-30.