Month

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MONTH. A space of time variously computed, as it is applied to astronomical, civil or solar, or lunar months.
     2. The astronomical month contains one-twelfth part of the time employed by the sun in going through the zodiac. In law, when a month simply is mentioned, it is never understood to mean an astronomical month.
     3. The civil or solar month is that which agrees with the Gregorian calendar, and these months are known by the names of January, February, March, &c. They are composed of unequal portions of time. There are seven of thirty-one days each, four of thirty, and one which is sometimes composed of twenty-eight days, and in leap years, of twenty-nine.
     4. The lunar mouth is composed of twenty-eight days only. When a law is passed or contract made, and the month is expressly stated to be solar or civil, which is expressed by the term calendar month, or when it is expressed to be a lunar month, no difficulty can arise; but when time is given for the performance of an act, and the word month simply is used, so that the intention of the parties cannot be ascertained then the question arises, how shall the month be computed? By the law of England a month means ordinarily, in common contracts, as, in leases, a lunar month; a contract, therefore, made for a lease of land for twelve months, would mean a lease for forty-eight weeks only. 2 Bl. Com. 141; 6 Co. R. 62; 6 T. R. 224. A distinction has been made between "twelve months," and "a twelve-month;" the latter has been held to mean a year. 6 Co. R. 61.
     5. Among the Greeks and Romans the months were lunar, and probably the mode of computation adopted in the English law has been adopted from the codes of these countries. Clef des Lois Rom. mot Mois.
     6. But in mercantile contracts, a month simply signifies a calendar month; a promissory note to pay money in twelve months, would therefore mean a promise to pay in one year, or twelve calendar months. Chit. on Bills, 406; 1 John. Cas. 99; 3 B. & B. 187; 1 M. & S. 111; Story on Bills, Sec. 143; Story, P. N. Sec. 213; Bayl. on Bills, c. 7; 4 Kent, Comm. Sect. 56; 2 Mass. 170; 4 Mass. 460; 6 Watts. & Serg. 179.
     7. In general, when a statute Speaks of a month, without adding "calendar," or other words showing a clear intention, it shall be intended a lunar month. Com. Dig. Ann. B; 4 Wend. 512; 15 John. R. 358. See 2 Cowen, R. 518; Id. 605. In all legal proceedings, as in commitments, pleadings, &c. a month means four weeks. 3 Burr. R. 1455; 1 Bl. Rep. 450; Dougl. R. 446 463.
     8. In Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, and perhaps some other states, 1 Hill. Ab. 118, n., a month mentioned generally in a statute, has been construed to mean a calendar month. 2 Dall. R. 302; 4 Dall. Rep. 143; 4 Mass. R. 461; 4 Bibb. R. 105. In England, in the ecclesiastical law, months are computed by the calendar. 3 Burr. R. 1455; 1 M. & S. 111.
     9. In New York, it is enacted that whenever the term "month," or "months," is or shall be used in any statute, act, deed, verbal or written contract, or any public or private instrument whatever, it shall be construed to mean a calendar, and not a lunar month; unless otherwise expressed. Rev. Stat. part 1, c. 19, tit. 1, Sec. 4. Vide, generally, 2 Sim. & Stu. 476; 2 A. K. Marsh. Rep. 245; 3 John. Ch. Rep. 74; 2 Campb. 294; 1 Esp. R. 146; 6 T. R. 224; 1 M. & S. 111; 3 East, R. 407; 4 Moore, 465; 1 Bl. Rep. 150; 1 Bing. 307; S. C. 8 Eng. C. L. R. 328;. 1 M. & S. 111; 1 Str. 652; 6 M. & S. 227; 3 Brod. & B. 187; S. C. 7 Eng. C. L. R. 404.

References in classic literature ?
The condition with which alone we have here to concern ourselves was one which provided that each of the two lovers, hereafter to be called the husband of the one part and the wife of the other part, solemnly bound themselves to spend one calendar month of each year out of each other's society, with full and free liberty to spend it wheresoever, with whomsoever, and howsoever they pleased; and that this condition was rigidly to be maintained, whatever immediate effort it might cost, as the parties thereto believed that so would their love the more likely maintain an enduring tenderness and an unwearied freshness.
After four months of incredible suffering, their baggage having been pillaged, and their attendants beaten and slain, they arrived at Kazeh, a sort of central rendezvous for traders and caravans.
765-767) Mark the days which come from Zeus, duly telling your slaves of them, and that the thirtieth day of the month is best for one to look over the work and to deal out supplies.
Evgenie Pavlovitch, who went abroad at this time, intending to live a long while on the continent, being, as he often said, quite superfluous in Russia, visits his sick friend at Schneider's every few months.
Two months is an ample allowance; I should think six weeks quite enough.
"Now examine this pantograph, taken at eight months, and also marked A.
He cursed his fate because he had no money to travel, and he knew his uncle would not send him more than the fifteen pounds a month which had been agreed upon.
"Look at the one I got now, not as big as the smallest here, an' me payin' six dollars a month for it."
In doing this he would satisfy everybody - the grocer, his sister, Ruth, and even Maria, to whom he owed a month's room rent.
One day, after he had borrowed The Worm's trap for a lady who never existed, had used it himself all the afternoon, had sent a note to The Worm purporting to come from the lady, and was telling the Mess all about it, The Worm rose in his place and said, in his quiet, ladylike voice: "That was a very pretty sell; but I'll lay you a month's pay to a month's pay when you get your step, that I work a sell on you that you'll remember for the rest of your days, and the Regiment after you when you're dead or broke." The Worm wasn't angry in the least, and the rest of the Mess shouted.
he has already stayed at his uncle's house a month longer than he intended.
He started another journal--"The Epoch," which within a few months was also prohibited.