dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The absolute mtDNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method as previously described.
5] exposure and telomere length, mtDNA content, and SIRT1 expression, monthly average [PM.
The Mitochondria Research Laboratory in the CHM at NWU, which is not affiliated to the NHLS IMD Laboratory, has since 1998 approached mtDNA disease investigations mainly in cohort investigations with the Department of Paediatrics, University of Pretoria, as well as ad hoc cases from elsewhere in SA.
Subsequently, the predictive value of this threshold was confirmed in an independent blinded prospective study, indicating that abnormal mtDNA levels are present in 30 percent of non-implanting euploid embryos, but are not seen in embryos forming a viable pregnancy.
Finally, we first detected that the number of mtDNA (ND1, Cytb, ATP6, and D-Loop) mutations was significantly higher in the 50 nM MeHg-treated group in hNPCs.
2012) mtDNA findings of better support for population expansion in migratory birds than in resident birds in light of new data from six nuclear introns.
On the other hand, it can be questioned whether some phenotypic characteristics are highly accounted for by the mtDNA physical strength or sports ability, for instance.
Some inherited diseases are carried in the MTDNA, and some - such as muscular dystrophy, progressive blindness, seizures, dementia, stroke-like symptoms, deafness and learning difficulties - are very disabling.