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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Electroporation as a prime/boost strategy for naked DNA vaccination against a tumor antigen.
In mouse studies, cells that received the naked DNA produced a marker protein for a day or two before the animals were killed and examined.
Other studies have used naked DNA," says William P.
Samant, said, "We are pleased to enhance our broad coverage of naked DNA with this specific patent in the dynamic field of angiogenesis.
San Diego, CA; 858-646-1100) announced the issuance of United States Patent 6,214,804, which expands the company's broad ownership of naked DNA gene delivery technologies by including administration of naked DNA into any tissue for the purpose of inducing an immune response.
Scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) produced images of naked DNA (135: 53) and of many organic and inorganic molecules and surfaces (135: 200).
Delivery of Naked DNA Using Hydrodynamic Injection Techniques
Patent Number 6,972,013, entitled, "Enhanced Delivery of Naked DNA to Skin by Non-Invasive In Vivo Electroporation" adds significantly to Inovio's pioneering position in the use of electroporation to deliver DNA and other nucleic acids into skin for the purpose of DNA vaccination and gene therapy.
Brown's team has developed a new test that measures the activity of chromatin, rather than just naked DNA.
Instead this approach uses naked DNA that travels through the bloodstream to cells of the body.
The VEGF-2 is delivered via a non-viral vector system in which the naked DNA plasmid is injected directly into the tissue where the gene transfer occurs.
Vical Incorporated, The Naked DNA Company(TM), is focused on the development of pharmaceutical product candidates based on its patented gene delivery technology.