DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
In several cases naked DNA was employed successfully, but DNA-Liposome complexes or electroporation procedures have been also used (Spadafora).
We have considerable experience in using the identical naked DNA for big blood vessel blockages, so we feel very good about the safety, the best way to utilize it, and so forth.
More recent protocols show that naked DNA performs better in macaques and humans as part of a prime-boost regime [30].
The resulting in vivo production of the protein after naked DNA injection, can involve biosynthetic processing and post-translational modifications (i.e., native protein form) (3).
NAKED DNA If viral vectors are risky and nonviral vectors are difficult to develop, why not get rid of the carrier altogether?
"We thought we would [use] the naked DNA, without the viral vector," says study coauthor Sharon M.
Overall, the company has more than 400 issued or pending patents worldwide, with extensive coverage in the field of naked DNA gene delivery for DNA vaccination and gene-based protein delivery.
Vaccines based on this approach, often called naked DNA vaccines, have taken the first small steps into human trials against AIDS and cancer (SN: 2/17/96, p.
(San Diego; 858-646-1127) announced the issuance of United States Patent 6,228,844, which covers naked DNA delivery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) to the heart to promote the growth of blood vessels, called angiogenesis.
Whether naked DNA proves useful for vaccines will depend on whether it can be produced in large quantities and whether it has a good safety record, Ulmer adds.
(San Diego, CA; 858-646-1100) announced the issuance of United States Patent 6,214,804, which expands the company's broad ownership of naked DNA gene delivery technologies by including administration of naked DNA into any tissue for the purpose of inducing an immune response.