"But for that, we need switching speeds approaching one nanosecond
. Currently, refreshing of DRAM leaks a huge amount of energy globally, which is costly, both financially and environmentally.
The short distance that signals then have to travel between the voltage regulator and the cores allows power scaling to happen quickly-in a matter of nanoseconds
rather than microseconds-further improving efficiency.
The clocks in computers, telecommunications, and other complex systems must stay accurate to within nanoseconds
because their oscillators -- objects, like quartz crystals, which repeat the same motion over and over again-are synchronized to agree with the clocks on board Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites.
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Scientists could look closely at the inner workings of catalyst nanoparticles 3,000 times smaller than a human hair within nanoseconds
To do so, the team put the wafer in a chamber of boron chloride gas and blasted each spot with a powerful ultraviolet laser that emitted 200 bursts, each lasting 25 nanoseconds
. Each pulse melted the silicon surface.
Random access speeds are very high, with the fastest random cycle time measured at 30 nanoseconds
Local memory latency will be as little as two nanoseconds
for an eight-way system, according to Alphaserver product manager for the UK and Ireland Richard George.
"It's about 10 nanoseconds
of the most intense power on earth - creating conditions of hundreds of thousands of degrees and millions of atmospheres in pressure - in the form of X-rays," he added.
Alaser heats spots on an inner layer of the CD to between 300[degrees]C and 600[degrees]C for a few nanoseconds
. That's all it takes to rearrange the atoms in that layer in a way that imprints one bit of digital data--the proverbial 1 or 0.
The materials achieved switching speeds between 10 and 30 nanoseconds
, which are in the ballpark for a useful memory chip, Kanwal says.
Thanks to sophisticated computations, high-speed electronics, and in some eases relativity theory, the far-flung clocks of those systems can tick within just a few nanoseconds
of each other, despite separations of thousands of kilometers.
After a few nanoseconds
, this chain exits the tube and is replaced by another chain, and so on.