Nation of Islam

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Related to Nation of Islam: Black Panthers, Elijah Muhammad

Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization whose origins are somewhat mysterious. Wallace D. Fard, later known as Master Wallace Fard Muhammad, established the NOI in Detroit during the 1930s. Fard Muhammad, a traveling salesman who sold African silks and advocated self-sufficiency and independence for African Americans, taught Elijah Poole the history of what Fard Muhammad called the Lost-Found Nation of Islam—descendants of the tribe of Shabazz from the Lost Nation in Asia. Fard Muhammad taught Poole in part that Mr.Yacub, a black mad scientist, created what was called the devil race—the white race—approximately six thousand years ago, and that the devil race would rule the world for the next six thousand years.Elijah Poole was born in Sandersville, Georgia in 1897. His father, who was a Baptist preacher, had been a slave. At the age of twenty-six, Poole moved to Detroit with his family. In 1930 in Detroit, he met W. D. Fard, the founder of the Lost-Found Nation of Islam. When Fard disappeared in 1934, Poole—then known as Elijah Muhammad—moved to Chicago, where he organized his own following and established the headquarters of the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad remained the spiritual and organizational leader of the NOI from 1934 until his death in 1975. During that time, the NOI became recognized as a black nationalist religious organization that advocated racial separatism and self-sufficiency for African Americans. Often called Black Muslims, the NOI's members are required to adhere to a strict moral and disciplinary code. Men members typically wear suits and ties, and women members are required to wear modest clothing, typically white gowns or saris. The NOI's teachings forbid the eating of pork and the consumption of alcohol or tobacco.

In the early 1950s and 1960s, the NOI called for racial separatism in the United States, and at times protested against police brutality and filed suit against various police departments in response to alleged police brutality. It also frequently recruited members in large cities and prisons. In 1947, Malcolm Little—who later became Malcolm X—converted to Islam and joined the NOI while incarcerated in a Massachusetts prison. As a national minister and spokesman for the NOI, Malcolm X was a fiery speaker and proponent of the organization's concerns. However, during the early 1960s, ideological differences developed between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, and in 1964, Malcolm X formally left the NOI.

Shortly after Elijah Muhammad's death in 1975, his son Warith Deen Muhammad renounced black separatism and the origins of Black Muslims and established the World Community of Al-Islam in the West, later called the American Muslim Mission. NOI minister Louis X, who later became Louis Farrakhan, initially supported Warith Muhammad but soon reestablished the NOI. Other organizations and factions also split off from the original NOI, including the more militant Lost-Found Nation of Islam, which publishes the weekly newspaper Muhammad Speaks. In the mid-1990s, Farrakhan's organization was generally known as the NOI.

Like Malcolm X, Farrakhan is a fiery orator and skilled leader. Yet, he and the NOI have been criticized for anti-Semitic and antiwhite statements as well as conspiracy theories concerning Jewish American business leaders. Khalid Muhammad, a former NOI spokesman, was especially known for the excoriating statements and speeches he gave at many U.S. colleges in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Although the NOI later expelled Khalid Muhammad, his speeches contributed to a continuing debate as to whether so-called hate speech should be punished or regulated by U.S. universities.

During the early and mid-1990s, Farrakhan and the NOI appeared to be shifting their political focus away from black separatism and toward a more universalist or mainstream approach. The NOI also has begun to develop various major business ventures, including the operation of a restaurant in a poor neighbor-hood on Chicago's South Side. Its security arm—the Fruit of Islam—has been involved in providing security for housing projects in Baltimore, Chicago, and Washington, D.C., under contracts with public agencies such as the Chicago Housing Authority. In October 1995, the NOI and Farrakhan were instrumental in organizing the Million Man March, bringing together hundreds of thousands of African American men in Washington, D.C.

Further readings

Carson, Clayborne. 1991. Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf.

Karim, Benjamin, with Peter Skutches, and David Gallen. 1992. Remembering Malcolm: The Story of Malcolm X from Inside the Muslim Mosque. New York: Carroll & Graf.

Lee, Martha F. 1996. The Nation of Islam: An American Millenarian Movement. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse Univ. Press.

Tsoukalas, Steven. 2001. The Nation of Islam: Understanding the "Black Muslims." Phillipsburg, N.J.: P & R.


Hate Crime; Civil Rights Movement.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
For example, the male members of the Nation of Islam and the Dar ul-Islam Movement were members of highly organized internal disciplinary structures that were responsible for maintaining order.
Kevin Gaines's "Malcolm X in Global Perspective," affirms, like Sheila Radford-Hill's essay, the "importance of his Islamic faith to his rejection of the Nation of Islam's antiwhite doctrine" (158).
Journalist Leila Wills has been researching and documenting the Nation of Islam for over ten years.
Seeking help in fixing his dysfunctional marriage, Malcolm X wrote a desperate letter to Elijah Muhammad, the head of the Nation of Islam. In it he admitted he was sexually "incompatible" with his wife Betty and revealed that she had complained he had never given her "any real satisfaction" and that she was going to "seek satisfaction elsewhere".
He did not elaborate when he had joined the Nation of Islam.
When Napoleon was three years old, his parents and his two brothers were murdered in front of him by former friends and members of the Nation of Islam.
Malcolm X--or El-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz (as he was more properly known after his 1964 pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia)--had created both organizations in 1964, after leaving the Nation of Islam. Ferguson met Malcolm after he and other Blacks in Queens set up the Rochdale Movement, which sought to stop the construction of a new housing development in Queens.
A NATION of Islam activist has accused Black Country funnyman Lenny Henry of 'debasing' black people to get a laugh.
The Nation of Islam, Wiccans, Church of Scientology and more are surveyed in the course of probing how the new religious movements operate and interact in American culture.
She is the author of Little X: Growing Up in the Nation of Islam (University of Tennessee Press, reprint, November 2004).
His client, the champion's son, arranges a creative alternative to cash for payment, and Yates is on the case--from visiting country clubs to the incurring the ill will of the Nation of Islam, to face-to-face confrontations with short-tempered sluggers.
At that moment, the viewer watches one of his speeches during a Nation of Islam meeting, where he rhetorically asks the convening people if anyone can still remember his original ancestral African family name that was altered to Christian after being brought into America during the 1450-1750 slavery trade.