Boundary

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BOUNDARY, estates. By this term is understood in general, every separation, natural or artificial, which marks the confines or line of division of two contiguous estates. 3 Toull. n. 171.
     2. Boundary also signifies stones or other materials inserted in the earth on the confines of two estates.
     3. Boundaries are either natural or artificial. A river or other stream is a natural boundary, and in that case the centre of the stream is the line. 20 John. R. 91; 12 John. R. 252; 1 Rand. R. 417; 1 Halst. R. 1; 2 N. H. Rep. 369; 6 Cowen, R. 579; 4 Pick. 268; 3 Randolph's R. 33 4 Mason's R. 349-397.
     4. An artificial boundary is one made by man.
     5. The description of land, in a deed, by specific boundaries, is conclusive as to the quantity; and if the quantity be expressed as a part of the description, it will be inoperative, and it is immaterial whether the quantity contained within the specific boundaries, be greater or less than that expressed; 5 Mass. 357; 1 Caines' R. 493; 2 John. R. 27; 15 John. 471; 17 John. R. 146; Id. 29; 6 Cranch, 237; 4 Hen. & Munf. 125; 2 Bay, R. 515; and the same rule is applicable, although neither the courses and distances, nor the estimated contents, correspond with such specific boundaries; 6 Mass. 131; 11 Mass. 193; 2 Mass. 380; 5 Mass. 497; but these rules do not apply in cases where adherence to them would be plainly absurd. 17 Mass. 207. Vide 17 S. & R. 104; 2 Mer. R. 507; 1 Swanst. 9; 4 Ves. 180; 1 Stark. Ev. 169; 1 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t.; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 276; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 24, Sec. 209, and Index, h. t.
     6. When a boundary, fixed and by mutual consent, has been permitted to stand for twenty-one years, it cannot afterwards be disturbed. In accordance with this rule, it has been decided, that where town lots have been occupied up to a line fence between them, for more than twenty-one years, each party gained an incontrovertible right to the line thus established, and this whether either party knew of the adverse claim or not; and whether either party has more or less ground than was originally in the lot he owns. 9 Watts, R. 565. See Hov. Fr. c. 8, p. 239 to 243; 3 Sum. R 170 Poth. Contr. de Societe, prem. app. n. 231.
     7. Boundaries are frequently marked by partition fences, ditches, hedges, trees, &c. When such a fence is built by one of the owners of the land, on his own premises, it belongs to him exclusively; when built by both at joint expense, each is the owner of that part on his own land. 5 Taunt. 20. When the boundary is a hedge and a single ditch, it is presumed to belong to him on whose side the hedge is, because he who dug the ditch is presumed to have thrown the earth upon his own land, which was alone lawful to do, and that the hedge was planted, as is usual, on the top of the bank thus raised. 3 Taunt. 138. But if there is a ditch on each side of the hedge, or no ditch at all, the hedge is presumed to be the common property of both proprietors. Arch. N. P. 328; 2 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 617. A tree growing in the boundary line is the joint property of both owners of the land. 12 N. H. Rep. 454.
     8. Disputes arising from a confusion of boundaries may be generally settled by an action at law. But courts of equity will entertain a bill for the settlement of boundaries, when the rights of one of the parties may be established upon equitable grounds. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3923.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Firstly, Nachtigal, as Rohlfs (1873, p.36) before him, subscribes to the idea of the natural boundaries being determinate whereas the remaining boundaries are indeterminate.
Ilmari Hiitonen has characterized Wirzen's statement about Finland's "natural boundaries" as bold (Hiitonen 1958), and bold it was, especially when one thinks that not only Kola and East Karelia but also whole Finmark--northernmost Norway--east of Lyngefjord, as well as the west side of river Neva--where St Petersburg lies--were included inside the fines patriae naturales.
A flood typically is considered water that has overflowed its natural boundaries, such as when a river or lake reaches flood stage.
Watercourses have served as natural boundaries between states, routes for trade and commerce, and as a necessary component in health, cultural and religious practices of peoples around the world.
"It's important to show people what a stunning home we have here on Earth; it's important to show a world that has only natural boundaries, not political borders; it's important to try to inspire just a few people to care enough to become involved in the struggle we are now in to preserve our home."
In fact, natural boundaries make more sense than the new ones established in 1974 for local government purposes.
Natural boundaries are a perfect environment for grapes and other fruits.
Perdue recounts the epochal struggles between three empires--Qing, Muscovite, and Zungha--as each pursued the resources (logistical, material, ideological, etc.) needed to dominate Central Eurasia, a region with no natural boundaries, only politically imposed ones (23).
EU funding for TEN-T projects is currently limited to 10% of the total cost of investments, or a maximum of 20% for cross-border priority projects and those crossing natural boundaries.
The Munich settlement left Czechoslovakia without defenses or natural boundaries. The all-too-predictable consequence was that all of Central Europe soon fell under German domination.
That article concluded: "At present, there is little evidence that most contemporary psychiatric diagnoses are valid, because they are still defined by syndromes that have not been demonstrated to have natural boundaries," not to mention the fact that we have no objective tests of any kind for anything we do outside of EEGs in sleep disorders.