as shock-frequency reduction.
Some evidence exists to support the notion that negative reinforcement
maintains depressive behavior.
Once these behaviors develop, they are appear to be maintained via positive and negative reinforcement
processes, the effect of which are best viewed within the context of the presence of dysfunctional organismic variables.
These four classes involve combinations of positive and negative reinforcement
and social and automatic reinforcement (Iwata et al.
The effects of fixed-time and contingent schedules of negative reinforcement
on compliance and aberrant behavior.
Furthermore, some investigators have suggested that a distinction between positive and negative reinforcement
is untenable (e.
Based on this hypothesis, initial sessions of BATD consist of assessing the function of depressed behavior and efforts to weaken access to positive and negative reinforcement
In this case, it is possible that access to ritualistic behaviors served as either positive or negative reinforcement
for problem behavior.
As opposed to the negative reinforcement
paradigm mentioned in the DTI approach, the AVB approach relies on the use of competing positive reinforcement or motivation to increase on-task behavior (Carbone, 2003; Carbone, 2004; www.
For instance, peers might attend to the target child's disruptive behavior during the test for behavioral sensitivity to negative reinforcement
or during the "ignore" sessions.
Perceived susceptibility to a disease and severity of the disease if one is not compliant would elicit negative affect and function as negative reinforcement
such that avoidance of noncompliance would lead to avoidance of pain and suffering.
One child's behavior appeared to be more sensitive to negative reinforcement
, whereas the other child appeared to be more sensitive to tangible reinforcement.