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Related to Negative reinforcement: Negative punishment, Positive punishment

NEGATIVE. This word has several significations. 1. It is used in contradistinction to giving assent; thus we say the president has put his negative upon such a bill. Vide Veto. 2. It is also used in contradistinction to affirmative; as, a negative does not always admit of the simple and direct proof of which an affirmative is capable. When a party affirms a negative in his pleadings, and without the establishment of which, by evidence, he cannot recover or defend himself, the burden of the proof lies upon him, and he must prove the negative. 8 Toull. n. 18. Vide 2 Gall. Rep. 485; 1 McCord, R. 573; 11 John. R. 513; 19 John. R. 345; 1 Pick. R. 375; Gilb. Ev. 145; 1 Stark. Ev. 376; Bull. N. P. 298; 15 Vin. Ab. 540; Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. I.
    202. Although as a general rule the affirmative of every issue must be proved, yet this rule ceases to operate the moment the presumption of law is thrown into the other scale. When the issue is on the legitimacy of a child, therefore, it is incumbent on the party asserting the illegitimacy to prove it. 2 Selw. N. P. 709. Vide Affirmative Innocence.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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Burned your skin (i.e., with 12.2 a cigarette, match or other hot object) Other 9.9 Table 2 Factor loadings for the functions scale Reasons Factor loading Automatic negative Reinforcement 2.
(3) The boundary conditions and the length of negative reinforcement steel bar can directly affect the antiexplosion ability of the slab.
The diversity of the above factors highlights the need for such analyses, as a conceptualization of depression that highlights broad principles of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, rule-governed behavior, and establishing operations is not of much use given the ubiquity of these processes.
Their behavioral proclivities are a product of the positive and negative reinforcements they've gotten in the past.
Like socially-mediated behavior, automatically reinforced behavior can be governed by positive or negative reinforcement contingencies.
Figure 1 illustrates the changing role of positive and negative reinforcement circuits during the transition from the nondependent to the dependent state.
In positive reinforcement, adding a stimulus causes a behavior to increase, but in negative reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus causes a behavior to increase.
The sorts of reinforcers examined in functional assessment have historically been classified into two general classes: (1) positive, social reinforcement and (2) escape or avoidance of unpleasant or aversive situations ("negative reinforcement").
Now Tilmann Klein and colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany have found that people with a particular variant of a gene may have more difficulty than normal learning via negative reinforcement. The research centres on the A1 allele of the gene encoding the D2 receptor, a protein on the surface of brain cells that affects the neurotransmitter dopamine.
In fact, in a review conducted by Iwata and colleagues (1994), it was discovered that in a majority of analogue functional analyses reviewed SIB was maintained by negative reinforcement or escape from some noxious stimulus (e.g., demands, social interactions).
Negative reinforcement will also shape performance, but it generally produces behaviors that are just enough to get by.

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