Craniofacial birth defects: the role of neural crest cells
in the etiology and pathogenesis of Treacher Collins syndrome and the potential for prevention.
In July, three scientists proposed that certain physical features shared by domestic animals, described as domestication syndrome, might all result from mild defects in the function of cells known as neural crest cells
(SN: 8/23/14, p.
The neural crest cell
defects are probably the result of changes in dozens of genes, each producing a small effect on the cells' behavior, the team proposes.
The cranial neural crest cells
develop into many important structures of the head and face, and 90 percent of the gingival stem cells were found to be N-GMSC.
Neural crest cells
also give rise to ocular and auditory structures.
Knowing how neural crest cells
direct facial development could one day help scientists prevent human facial defects like cleft palate.
Neural crest cells
play an important role in embryonic development as they differentiate into components of the central and peripheral nervous systems, vascular system, and muscle tissue.
In chick embryos, alcohol exposure before the cranial neural crest cells
begin to migrate results in excessive cell death of these cells during the period of migration, leading to abnormal facial features modeling effects in humans with FAS (Cartwright et al.
Muscle formation in the target stem cells occurred only when the NOTCH pathway was triggered briefly by the migrating neural crest cells
Among the topics are effective cleft lip surgery, growth of the dentofacial complex in the presence of cleft lip and palate, repairing alveolar clefts by bone grafting, cleft speech-assessment and management, genetics and embryogenesis, neural crest cells
in development of CL/P, genetic analysis of CL/P at the present and its prospects for the future, the preventive effect of folic acid and other vitamins on congenital anomalies, and methods for dietary surveys aimed to prevent CL/P.