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Geographically Weighted Regression--Modelling Spatial Non-Stationarity.
Using the same approach of testing the non-stationarity properties of the residual from ordinary regression of the variables, Pedroni (1999, 2004) extended the above approach to panel data.
5 and 1, implying fractional integration, non-stationarity and mean- reverting behavior.
Then non-stationarity of the signal is modelled by adding generated burst signal to the generated normal distribution signal.
The data series in level data thus demonstrates non-stationarity with the presence of the unit root.
Non-stationarity in the cumulated series is mainly caused by changes in extreme precipitation.
In MI-based BCIs high inter subject and intra subject variability are resulted due to the time, frequency, and spatial non-stationarity of these patterns.
The non-stationarity data may render OLS estimation generation spurious and meaningless coefficients, if variables may integrate in different orders (Phillips, 1987).
More specifically, the ADF and PP unit root tests show that the null hypothesis of non-stationarity (unit root) based on the critical values of MacKinnon (1991) is accepted in most cases.
Inflation causes non-stationarity in the sense that it forces prices to rise over time, and the price measured earlier in time will be less than one measured later in time because of the inflation.
Time series analyses should start with tests for stationarity; if individuals are found to follow a non-stationary time series, focus should be on explaining that non-stationarity.

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