road

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ROAD. A passage through the country for the use of the people. 3 Yeates, 421.
     2. Roads are public or private. Public roads are laid out by public authority, or dedicated by individuals to public use. The public have the use of such roads, but the owner of the land over which they are made and the owners of land bounded on the highway, have, prima facie, a fee in such highway, ad medium filum vice, subject to the easement in favor of the public. 1 Conn. 193; 11 Conn. 60; 2 John. 357 15 John. 447. But where the boundary excludes the highway, it is, of course, excluded. 11 Pick. 193. See 13 Mass. 259. The proprietor of the soil, is therefore entitled to all the fruits which grow by its side; 16 Mass. 366, 7; and to all the mineral wealth it contains. 1 Rolle, 392, 1. 5; 4 Day, R. 328; 1 Conn'. Rep, 103; 6 Mass. R. 454; 4 Mass, R. 427; 15 Johns. Rep. 447, 583; 2 Johns. R. 357; Com. Dig. Chimin, A 2; 6 Pet. 498; 1 Sumn. 21; 10 Pet. 25; 6 Pick. 57; 6 Mass. 454; 12 Wend. 98.
     3. There are public roads, such as turnpikes and railroads, which are constructed by public authority, or by corporations. These are kept in good order by the respective companies to which they belong, and persons travelling on them, with animals and vehicles, are required to pay toll. In general these companies have only a right of passage over the land, which remains the property, subject to the easement, of the owner at the time the road was made or of his heirs or assigns.
     4. Private roads are, such as are used for private individuals only, and are not wanted for the public generally. Sometimes roads of this kind are wanted for the accommodation of land otherwise enclosed and without access to public roads. The soil of such roads belongs to the owner of the land over which they are made.
     5. Public roads are kept in repair at the public expense, and private roads by those who use them. Vide Domain; Way. 13 Mass. 256; 1 Sumn. Rep. 21; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 7; 1 Pick. R. 122; 2 Mass. R. 127 6 Mass. R. 454; 4 Mass. R. 427; 15 Mass. Rep. 33; 3 Rawle, R. 495; 1 N. H. Rep. 16; 1 McCord, R. 67; 1 Conn. R. 103; 2 John. R. 357; 1 John. Rep. 447; 15 John. R. 483; 4 Day, Rep. 330; 2 Bailey, Rep. 271; 1 Burr. 133; 7 B. & Cr. 304; 11 Price R. 736; 7 Taunt. R. 39; Str. 1004. 1 Shepl. R. 250; 5 Conn. Rep. 528; 8 Pick. R. 473; Crabb, R. P. Sec. 102-104.

ROAD, mar. law. A road is defined by Lord Hale to be an open passage of the sea, which, from the situation of the adjacent land, and its own depth and wideness, affords a secure place for the common riding and anchoring of vessels. Hale de Port. Mar. p. 2, c. 2. This word, however, does not appear to have a very definite meaning. 2 Chit. Com. Law, 4, 5.

References in periodicals archive ?
The first set of EPA emission standards started in the late 1990s and continued throughout the early 2000s for all new nonroad diesel engines, following a similar path provided by on-road engine manufacturers.
In its most recent nonroad diesel rulemaking, EPA estimated that standards imposed for nonroad land-based diesel engines typically used in construction, agricultural, industrial and mining operations will achieve particulate matter (PM) reductions in excess of 95 percent.
Control of Emissions from Nonroad Spark-Ignition Engines and Equipment, 73 Fed.
Federally funded projects in Lower Manhattan have taken these standards a step further requiring diesel particulate filters for nonroad construction equipment with engines greater than 50 horsepower.
Biodiesel is registered with the EPA, and is legal for use at any blend level in both highway and nonroad diesel vehicles.
Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules for diesel engines and fuels, for both highway and nonroad vehicles, will reduce by 90 percent nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate (PM) emissions from new diesel vehicles.
The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) recently announced that the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Clean Diesel Campaign has begun accepting applications for demonstration projects targeted at reducing diesel emissions from nonroad vehicles and equipment, such as those employed in construction and port-related activities.
Environmental: Earlier this month, the Bush Administration announced new regulations to reduce the sulfur content of diesel fuel for tractors, bulldozers, locomotives, barges and other nonroad vehicles.
During nonroad times, Carlile coordinates the transmittal of its cargo via airplanes.
In her resignation statement, the former New Jersey governor stressed EPA's achievements, particularly the recent initiative to reduce pollution from nonroad diesel engines.
Heavy-duty diesel equipment now only has modest emissions restrictions and is responsible for more than 240 tons per day of smog-forming emissions in the Los Angeles region, making these nonroad engines the third-largest polluters, officials say.