road

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ROAD. A passage through the country for the use of the people. 3 Yeates, 421.
     2. Roads are public or private. Public roads are laid out by public authority, or dedicated by individuals to public use. The public have the use of such roads, but the owner of the land over which they are made and the owners of land bounded on the highway, have, prima facie, a fee in such highway, ad medium filum vice, subject to the easement in favor of the public. 1 Conn. 193; 11 Conn. 60; 2 John. 357 15 John. 447. But where the boundary excludes the highway, it is, of course, excluded. 11 Pick. 193. See 13 Mass. 259. The proprietor of the soil, is therefore entitled to all the fruits which grow by its side; 16 Mass. 366, 7; and to all the mineral wealth it contains. 1 Rolle, 392, 1. 5; 4 Day, R. 328; 1 Conn'. Rep, 103; 6 Mass. R. 454; 4 Mass, R. 427; 15 Johns. Rep. 447, 583; 2 Johns. R. 357; Com. Dig. Chimin, A 2; 6 Pet. 498; 1 Sumn. 21; 10 Pet. 25; 6 Pick. 57; 6 Mass. 454; 12 Wend. 98.
     3. There are public roads, such as turnpikes and railroads, which are constructed by public authority, or by corporations. These are kept in good order by the respective companies to which they belong, and persons travelling on them, with animals and vehicles, are required to pay toll. In general these companies have only a right of passage over the land, which remains the property, subject to the easement, of the owner at the time the road was made or of his heirs or assigns.
     4. Private roads are, such as are used for private individuals only, and are not wanted for the public generally. Sometimes roads of this kind are wanted for the accommodation of land otherwise enclosed and without access to public roads. The soil of such roads belongs to the owner of the land over which they are made.
     5. Public roads are kept in repair at the public expense, and private roads by those who use them. Vide Domain; Way. 13 Mass. 256; 1 Sumn. Rep. 21; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 7; 1 Pick. R. 122; 2 Mass. R. 127 6 Mass. R. 454; 4 Mass. R. 427; 15 Mass. Rep. 33; 3 Rawle, R. 495; 1 N. H. Rep. 16; 1 McCord, R. 67; 1 Conn. R. 103; 2 John. R. 357; 1 John. Rep. 447; 15 John. R. 483; 4 Day, Rep. 330; 2 Bailey, Rep. 271; 1 Burr. 133; 7 B. & Cr. 304; 11 Price R. 736; 7 Taunt. R. 39; Str. 1004. 1 Shepl. R. 250; 5 Conn. Rep. 528; 8 Pick. R. 473; Crabb, R. P. Sec. 102-104.

ROAD, mar. law. A road is defined by Lord Hale to be an open passage of the sea, which, from the situation of the adjacent land, and its own depth and wideness, affords a secure place for the common riding and anchoring of vessels. Hale de Port. Mar. p. 2, c. 2. This word, however, does not appear to have a very definite meaning. 2 Chit. Com. Law, 4, 5.

References in periodicals archive ?
Nonpoint, onroad, and nonroad sources accounted for about ninety-five percent carbon monoxide emissions in 2005.
According to DEP, through this grant opportunity, the EPA's Clean Construction and Clean Ports USA programs looks to assist the owners and operators of nonroad vehicles and equipment in overcoming barriers to the adoption of cleaner diesel technologies and strategies.
Among all nonroad engines, marine engines account for 30 percent of HC and 16 percent of the N[O.
The Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association continues to represent its members on a wide variety of issues related to engines used in nonroad construction and farming equipment, locomotives, marine vessels, lawn, garden and utility equipment, trucks and buses, and stationary generators worldwide, and on medium- and heavy-duty truck issues related to safety, noise and fuel efficiency.
mobile, nonroad mobile), which I will use throughout the Article with
Requirements and incentives for reducing construction vehicle emissions comparison of nonroad diesel engine emissions data sources, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 135(5): 341-351.
In a letter to Jackson, the senators say: "While we appreciate the recognition that E15 cannot be used in the majority of snowmobiles, chain saws, lawn mowers, boats, airplanes, and other nonroad engines, we are concerned that it appears that the EPA did not consider the implications of what is a growing problem in our country for these products: the decreasing availability of pure gasoline.
Nonroad transportation: $50 million for "Connect Oregon" projects that improve port, rail and air transportation
Another notable success with the early involvement strategy was an EPA rule on emission from nonroad diesel engines.
Proposed Nonroad Landbased Diesel Engine Rule: Air Quality Estimation, Selected Health and Welfare Benefits Methods, and Benefit Analysis Results.
The Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) recently praised the Environmental Protection Agency for introducing a new Clean Air Nonroad Diesel Rule that is designed to lower emissions from construction, agricultural and industrial diesel-powered equipment by more than 90 percent as well as reduce the sulfur content in diesel fuel by 99 percent.